History Podcasts

Historical examples of energy wars

Historical examples of energy wars

Energy sources and resources like oil and coal are vital for the survival of modern civilizations.

Are there any good historical examples of wars, or low intensity armed conflicts, over the control of such energy resources?

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the world's only significant sources of Energy were manual and animal labour fueled by food supplies. In much of the Third World today that statement remains true. Therefore any distinction between Wars over food resources and other sources such as Oil and Coal is an artificial one, and equivalent to Wars between modern industrial countries, and their clients, post-1740 or so.

Given that, one is probably left with:

  1. First Gulf War (explicitly about Kuwait);
  2. Second Gulf War (unfinished business from FGW);
  3. the Iran-Iraq war;
  4. U.S. entry to World War 2 (conflict over access to Indonesian oil after embargo of U.S. oil);
  5. The War of Austrian Succession (conflict over Silesian Coal),
  6. The Seven Years War (simply a continuance of the latter).

This atlas of Belgium (Austrian Netherlands) prepared by Ferraris between 1770 and 1777 for Marie Antoinette shows numerous small coal mines. There are several between Ligny and St. Amand on map #97 - Gembloux, and another south of the village of Waterloo, in the woods west of the main road. As the infamous Sand Pit near La Haye Sainte does not exist on these maps, it s possible that it too was a small coal mine excavated between 1777 and 1815. The size is right.

The small-scale mining of coal at this time was for use in the small steam engines of the day, and for home heating (probably derived from the similar use of peat). Silesia, like Belgium , had numerous seams of coal near the surface. Watt's steam engine hadn't been invented yet but Newcommen's was already about 30 years old. All of this Frederick would have known about Silesia by 1740.

Yes, there are several conflicts like that.

  • The Chaco war, 1932-1935.
  • The Iraq invasion of Kuwait, 1990.
  • The Sudan - South Sudan border conflict, 2012.

There are also civil conflicts like for example in Nigeria that is about oil.

Note that these are not about energy per se, but about money, and is therefore not really anything different from any war over resources or trade.

I might have missed some, and you will also hear many other examples of wars over oil, but most of those are not direct wars over who should control an energy resource, instead it's only a part of the conflict, or more commonly oil is being only an indirect reason.

Another famous war for resources (including but not limited to energy), was expressed in 5 words:

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

If one accepts long-term strategy and geopolitical interests (as opposed to immediate "grab this oil field"), most of the wars in Middle East since 1920 are ultimately over oil interests.

For example, most Israel-Arab conflicts are driven by British screwing things up half-way as far as Baldur and subsequent Mandate handling, all of which was because they became vitally interested in Arab oil and thus unwilling to give the entirety of Palestine to Jews as they originally wanted.

Most of the Sunni/Shia conflict can also ultimately be traced to oil access (Iran wants Saudi oil).

Most of the Western and Soviet meddling in Arab world and Arab/Israeli conflicts also stem from oil.

Most of Chinese meddling in the area, as well.

Heck, even American conflicts with Iraq were somewhat related to oil, though not in the idiotic way progressives portrayed them (Bush didn't invade Iraq over giving oil to Haliburton; but he did invade in part because strategically, Saddam was a threat to the stability of the region and thus long term oil supply). One of the reasons why the French and NATO were so gung-ho to help in Libya and so reluctant in Syria was that Syria has no oil to bother about.

Also do be included are Kurdish conflicts in Iraq post-Saddam (access to oil in Kurdish areas); Libyan civil war. Had other reasons but oil was up there.

The 1970s

The 1970s were a tumultuous time. In some ways, the decade was a continuation of the 1960s. Women, African Americans, Native Americans, gays and lesbians and other marginalized people continued their fight for equality, and many Americans joined the protest against the ongoing war in Vietnam. In other ways, however, the decade was a repudiation of the 1960s. A “New Right” mobilized in defense of political conservatism and traditional family roles, and the behavior of President Richard Nixon undermined many people’s faith in the good intentions of the federal government. By the end of the decade, these divisions and disappointments had set a tone for public life that many would argue is still with us today.

Timeline of Events: 1938-1950

With the help of Leo Szilard, Albert Einstein writes President Franklin D. Roosevelt, alerting the President to the importance of research on nuclear chain reactions and the possibility that research might lead to developing powerful bombs.

December 1938
The German radiochemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann discover the process of fission in uranium.

August 2, 1939
Albert Einstein writes President Franklin D. Roosevelt, alerting the President to the importance of research on nuclear chain reactions and the possibility that research might lead to developing powerful bombs. Einstein notes that Germany has stopped the sale of uranium and German physicists are engaged in uranium research.

September 1, 1939
Germany invades Poland. World War II begins.

February 24, 1941
Glenn T. Seaborg’s research group at the University of California in Berkeley discovers plutonium.

May 28, 1941
Roosevelt establishes the Office of Petroleum Coordinator for National Defense, later the Petroleum Administration for War, to issue rules governing the production, transportation, and distribution of petroleum and petroleum products.

December 7, 1941
The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. The United States enters the war.

January 19, 1942
President Roosevelt approves production of the atomic bomb following receipt of a National Academy of Sciences report determining that a bomb is feasible.

June 17, 1942
President Roosevelt instructs the Army to take responsibility for construction of atomic weapons complex. The Army delegates the task to the Corps of Engineers.

August 13, 1942
The Army Corps of Engineers establishes the Manhattan Engineer District to develop and build the atomic bomb. Uranium isotope separation facilities are built at Oak Ridge, Tennessee plutonium production reactors are built at Hanford, Washington and a weapons laboratory is set up at Los Alamos, New Mexico.

September 19, 1942
Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, head of the Manhattan Engineer District, selects Oak Ridge, Tennessee, site for facilities to produce nuclear materials. Isotope separation of uranium235 takes place in the gaseous diffusion plant built in the K-25 area of the site, in the electromagnetic plant in the Y-12 area, and in the liquid thermal diffusion plant. A pilot pile (reactor) and plutonium separation facility are built and operated at the X-10 area.

November 25, 1942
Groves selects Los Alamos, New Mexico, as site for separate scientific laboratory to design an atomic bomb.

December 2, 1942
Metallurgical Laboratory scientists led by Enrico Fermi achieve the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction in pile constructed under the west grandstand at Stagg field in Chicago.

January 16, 1943
Groves selects Hanford, Washington, as site for full-scale plutonium production and separation facilities. Three reactors--B, D, and F--are built.

August 1943
The Big Inch crude-oil pipeline is completed from the Texas oil fields to Pennsylvania. The line serves as a transportation alternative to tankers that are being sunk by German submarines. The line also supplies export petroleum to the East Coast so that the reduced number of tankers can meet the demands of the European war fronts with the shorter-haul distance across the Atlantic.

March 1944
The Little Big Inch pipeline for refined petroleum products is completed from Texas to New Jersey. Like the Big Inch, it is built by a private company, War Emergency Pipelines, but owned by the Federal government.

April 5, 1944
Congress passes the Synthetic Liquid Fuels Act authorizing the Bureau of Mines to build energy research laboratories.

December 22, 1944
Congress in the Flood Control Act of 1944 confirms the authorization of the Southwestern Power Administration created by President Roosevelt through a series of Executive and Departmental orders.

April 12, 1945
President Roosevelt dies. Harry S. Truman becomes President.

May 7, 1945
Germany surrenders.

July 16, 1945
Los Alamos scientists successfully test a plutonium implosion bomb in the Trinity shot at Alamogordo, New Mexico.

August 6, 1945
The gun model uranium bomb, called Little Boy, is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.

August 9, 1945
The implosion model plutonium bomb, called Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. Five days later, Japan surrenders.

June 14, 1946
Bernard Baruch presents the American plan for international control of atomic research to the United Nations. The Soviet Union opposes the plan, rendering it useless.

August 1, 1946
President Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 transferring Manhattan Project assets and responsibilities to the civilian Atomic Energy Commission.

January 1, 1947
In accordance with the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, all atomic energy activities are transferred to the newly created Atomic Energy Commission.

August 14, 1947
Ground is broken at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Graphite Research Reactor, the first reactor constructed for the sole purpose of exploring peaceful uses of the atom.

November 1947
Two new production reactors are authorized for the Hanford site. As the Cold War intensifies, the Atomic Energy Commission over the next five years greatly expands the weapons complex. New facilities include three additions to the Oak Ridge gaseous diffusion complex new gaseous diffusion plants at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio three additional plutonium production reactors at Hanford five heavy-water reactors for producing tritium and plutonium at a site on the Savannah River in South Carolina a reactor testing station near Idaho Falls, Idaho a feed materials production center at Fernald, Ohio component and assembly plants at Rocky Flats, Colorado, and Amarillo, Texas a second weapons laboratory at Livermore, California and a continental testing site near Las Vegas, Nevada.

June 23, 1948
Soviet Union begins blockade of West Berlin.

August 29, 1949
Soviet Union detonates first atomic device.

January 31, 1950
President Truman instructs the Atomic Energy Commission to expedite development of a thermonuclear weapon.

June 25, 1950
North Korea invades South Korea. The Korean War begins.

October 9, 1950
President Truman approves a $1.4 billion expansion of Atomic Energy Commission facilities to produce uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons.

Energy sources have changed throughout the history of the United States

Energy consumption patterns have changed significantly over the history of the United States as new energy sources have been developed and as uses of energy changed.

A typical American family from the time our country was founded used wood (a renewable energy source) as its primary energy source until the mid- to late-1800s. Early industrial growth was powered by water mills. Coal became dominant in the late 19th century before being overtaken by petroleum products in the middle of the last century, a time when natural gas usage also rose quickly.

Since the mid 20th century, use of coal has again increased (mainly as a primary energy source for electric power generation), and a new form of energy&mdashnuclear electric power&mdashemerged. After a pause in the 1970s, the use of petroleum and natural gas resumed growth, and the overall pattern of energy use since the late 20th century has remained fairly stable.

While the overall energy history of the United States is one of significant change as new forms of energy were developed, the three major fossil fuels&mdashpetroleum, natural gas, and coal, which together provided 87% of total U.S. primary energy over the past decade&mdashhave dominated the U.S. fuel mix for well over 100 years. Recent increases in the domestic production of petroleum liquids and natural gas have prompted shifts between the uses of fossil fuels (largely from coal-fired to natural gas-fired power generation), but the predominance of these three energy sources is likely to continue into the future.

EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) Reference case, which assumes continuation of current laws, regulations, and policies, projects continued significant reliance on the three major fossil fuels through at least 2040, when they still supply more than three-quarters of the nation's overall primary energy consumption.

Major Causes of Water Conflict

brass sculpture / creative commons

Only 0.4% of the world's drinkable water is accessible to humans. With a growing population of 7 billion people, disputes over potable water sources common especially in regions where water is scarce. Whenever a water source such as a lake, a river, or an underground aquifer crosses national borders, rightful ownership is often contested.

The Nile River in North Africa flows upstream and it is arguable that Egypt has historically benefitted the most – both economically and culturally – from the resources the river has provided. With several countries downstream including Ethiopia, motioning to build a dam for their own purposes, Egypt is facing the reality of losing access to their most precious resource (Kreamer, 2013).

Bangladesh and India both rely on the Ganges River as a major source of water for their people. With India posturing to build a dam for energy and efficiency purposes, Bangladesh would be in a more critical condition than they already are (Kreamer, 2013).

Because of the decreasing amount of potable water, it is not uncommon for nations or people groups to have conflict over a shared body of water, as we'll read further.

The Real History Of Fracking

Surprisingly, fracking can be traced back to 1862. It was during the battle of Fredericksburg VA., where Colonel Edward A.L. Roberts discovered something incredible when firing explosive artillery into a narrow canal that was blocking the battleground. The breakthrough was then described as 'superincumbent fluid tamping.'

On April 26, 1865, Edward Roberts obtained his very first patent, for an &ldquoImprovement&rdquo in exploding torpedoes in artesian wells. In November of 1866, Edward Roberts was awarded patient number 59,936, known as the &ldquoExploding Torpedo.&rdquo

This removal method was executed by packing a torpedo in an iron case that contained 15-20 pounds of powder. The case was then dropped into an oil well, at a spot nearest to the oil. From there, they would blow up the torpedo by linking the top of the covering with wire to the surface area and then loading the borehole with water.

This creation boosted oil production by 1200 percent from certain wells within a week. Additionally, this new type of extraction led to the founding of Roberts Petroleum Torpedo Company, which charged $100-$200 dollars per rocket, plus a royalty of 1/15 of the profits generated from the product.

Year Image Name Gender Organization Action
1564 Andrey Kurbsky Male Boyars Muscovite nobleman, a Rurikid, closely related to Ivan the Terrible, defected to Grand Duchy of Lithuania and soon began exposing the Ivan's regime.
1777 Samuel Shaw Male United States Continental Navy Along with Third Lieutenant Richard Marven, midshipman Shaw was a key figure in the passage of the first whistleblower law passed in the United States by the Continental Congress. [1] During the Revolutionary War, the two naval officers blew the whistle on the torturing of British POWs by Commodore Esek Hopkins, the commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy. [2] The Continental Congress enacted the whistleblower protection law on July 30, 1778, by a unanimous vote. [3] In addition, it declared that the United States would defend the two against a libel suit filed against them by Hopkins. [4]
1893 Edmund Dene Morel Male Congo Free State English shipping clerk turned journalist who reported on the atrocities in the Congo Free State in Africa and became an anti-slavery campaigner. His revelations led to a strong campaign against Belgian King Leopold II's autocratic regime in his African territory, where the rubber plantations brutally exploited slave labor. [5]
1930 Boris Bazhanov Male CPSU Secretariat Stalin's personal secretary, who fled abroad in 1928, and while living in the Western countries, exposed many secrets concerning Stalin's rise to power and the Stalin regime. First book of his memoirs was published in Paris in 1930.
1931 Herbert Yardley Male United States Cipher Bureau Cryptologist and Head of the Cipher Bureau, the first U.S. SIGINT agency better known as "The Black Chamber", who exposed the inner workings of the organization and its surveillance policies in his eponymous 1931 book, The American Black Chamber, after the United States Department of State withdrew funding from the organization's activities in 1929, citing ethical concerns. However, while "The Black Chamber" ceased operations following the withdrawal of funding, the publication of Yardley's book two years later and its resultant controversy in government circles caused the amendment of the Espionage Act of 1917 to prohibit the disclosure of foreign code or any communication transmitted through code. Though Yardley remains a controversial figure in the intelligence community, he was honored by the National Security Agency in 1999. [6] [7]
1933 Smedley Butler Male United States Marine Corps Retired U.S. Marines Corps Major General, a two-time recipient of the Medal of Honor, who alleged to the McCormack-Dickstein Committee in the U.S. House of Representatives that business leaders had plotted a fascist coup d'état against the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration in what became known as the Business Plot. In his book War Is a Racket, Butler listed well-known U.S. military operations that he alleged were not about protecting democracy as was told to the public but in furthering the business interests of U.S. banks and corporations.
1933/ 1934 Herbert von Bose Male Press Chief of Adolf Hitler's conservative Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen. He used his position inside the government apparatus to pass on information about secret atrocities and malfeasances committed by the Nazi Government and Part organizations (especially the SA and SS) to the foreign press - especially to Claud Cockburn, editor of the London-based muckraking journal The Week - in order to alarm the world public about those goings-on. On June 30, 1934, he was murdered by a squad of SS-men dispatched to his office by Heinrich Himmler, who shot him in the back of the head. Jessica Mitford dubbed him "Deep Throat of the Third Reich" [8]
1942 Jan Karski Male Polish Home Army Polish resistance fighter, who during World War II twice visited the Warsaw ghetto, and met with United States president Franklin Delano Roosevelt, with the UK Foreign Secretary, and with the Polish shadow government in London, to report what he had witnessed concerning conditions for Jewish people, and the extermination camps. His report was not taken seriously by any authority. [9] [10]
Year Image Name Gender Organization Action
1963 John Paul Vann Male United States Army American colonel, who, during the Vietnam War, reported to his superiors that American policy and tactics were seriously flawed, and later went to the media with his concerns. Vann was asked to resign his commission, did so, but later returned to Vietnam.
1965 Meier 19 [de] Male Swiss Police
1966 Peter Buxtun Male United States Public Health Service Exposed the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. [11]
1967 John White Male United States Navy U.S. Navy Lieutenant Jg, White wrote this letter to the editor of the New Haven (Conn.) Register. He asserted that U.S. President Lyndon Johnson lied to Congress about faulty sonar reports used to justify the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. White continued his whistleblowing activities by appearing in the 1968 documentary In the Year of the Pig. In 2014, he published his post-mortem entitled The Gulf of Tonkin Events: Fifty Years Later (A Footnote to the History of the Vietnam War).
1971 Daniel Ellsberg Male United States State Department Ellsberg was a former RAND Corp. military analyst who, along with Anthony Russo, leaked the Pentagon Papers, a secret account of the Vietnam War to The New York Times. The Pentagon Papers revealed endemic practices of deception by previous administrations, and contributed to the erosion of public support for the war. The release triggered a legal case concerning government efforts to prevent the publication of classified information that was heard by the U.S. Supreme Court (New York Times Co. v. United States (403 U.S. 713)). Ellsberg himself was the subject of retaliation by the Nixon Administration.
1971 Frank Serpico Male New York Police Department Former New York City police officer who reported several of his fellow officers for bribery and related charges in front of the Knapp Commission probing police corruption in the NYPD. Serpico was the first police officer in the history of the NYPD to step forward to report and subsequently testify openly about widespread, systemic corruption payoffs amounting to millions of dollars. [12] The 1973 film Serpico is an account of his story.
1971 Perry Fellwock Male National Security Agency Former NSA analyst who revealed the existence of the NSA and its worldwide covert surveillance network in Ramparts magazine in 1971. [13] At the time, the NSA was an ultra secretive scarcely known organization. Because of the Fellwock revelations, the U.S. Senate Church Committee introduced successful legislation to stop NSA spying on American citizens. Fellwock was motivated by Daniel Ellsberg's release of the Pentagon Papers. [14] [15]
1971 Vladimir Bukovsky Male Soviet abuse of psychiatry In the Soviet Union, during the leadership of general secretary Leonid Brezhnev, psychiatry was used as a tool to eliminate political dissidents. [16] In 1971, Vladimir Bukovsky smuggled to the West a file of 150 pages documenting the political abuse of psychiatry, which he sent to The Times. [17] The documents were photocopies of forensic reports on prominent Soviet dissidents. [18] In January 1972, Bukovsky was convicted of spreading anti-Soviet propaganda under Criminal Code, mainly on the ground that he had, with anti-Soviet intention, circulated false reports about political dissenters confined in mental hospitals. [19] Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union was denounced in the course of the Congresses of the World Psychiatric Association in Mexico City (1971), Hawaii (1977), Vienna (1983) and Athens (1989). [20]
1972 W. Mark Felt Male Federal Bureau of Investigation Known only as Deep Throat until 2005, Felt was Associate Director of the FBI, the number-two job in the Bureau, when he leaked information about President Richard Nixon's involvement in the Watergate scandal. [21] The scandal would eventually lead to the resignation of the president, and prison terms for White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman and presidential adviser John Ehrlichman.
1973 Stanley Adams Male Hoffmann-LaRoche A senior executive at Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffman-LaRoche, Adams supplied evidence to European Economic Community regulators on the company's price fixing in the international vitamin market. [22] The EEC revealed his name during the resulting investigation and Adams was arrested for industrial espionage by the Swiss government and spent six months in jail. He fought for ten years to clear his name and receive compensation from the EEC.
1973 A. Ernest Fitzgerald Male United States Department of Defense U.S. Air Force auditor who exposed to Congress a $2 billion cost overrun associated with Lockheed's C-5A cargo plane. Fitzgerald retired from the Defense Department in 2006. [23]
1973 Henri Pezerat Male French National Centre for Scientific Research Henri Pezerat, working on the Jussieu Campus, detected asbestos fibres falling from the ceiling and created a committee to study and inform people about the dangers of asbestos.
1974 Karen Silkwood Female Kerr-McGee There have been a number of nuclear power whistleblowers who have identified safety concerns at nuclear power plants. The first prominent nuclear power whistleblower was Karen Silkwood, who worked as a chemical technician at a Kerr-McGee nuclear plant. Silkwood became an activist in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union in order to protest health and safety issues. In 1974, she testified to the United States Atomic Energy Commission about her concerns. The 1983 film Silkwood is an account of this story.
1976 Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh Male General Electric Nuclear power whistleblowers. On February 2, 1976, Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh (known as the GE Three) "blew the whistle" on safety problems at nuclear power plants, and their action has been called "an exemplary instance of whistleblowing". [24] The three engineers gained the attention of journalists and their disclosures about the threats of nuclear power had a significant impact. They timed their statements to coincide with their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric's nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments, federal agencies, and overseas governments. The consulting firm they formed, MHB Technical Associates, was technical advisor for the movie, The China Syndrome. The three engineers participated in Congressional hearings which their disclosures precipitated. [24] [25] [26] [27]
1977 Frank Snepp Male Central Intelligence Agency CIA analyst at the US Embassy, Saigon who published Decent Interval in 1977 about Operation Frequent Wind and the failures of the CIA and other American entities to properly prepare for the Fall of Saigon. Although he redacted all names, methods, and sources from the book, after it was published, CIA Director Stansfield Turner had Snepp successfully prosecuted for breach of contract for violating his non-disclosure agreement. [28] Snepp lost all income, including royalties, from publication of the book, a verdict upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.
Year Image Name Gender Organization Action
1981 Ralph McGehee Male Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Ralph Walter McGehee (born 1928) served for 25 years in American intelligence, being a former case officer of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). From 1953 to 1972, his assignments were in East Asia and Southeast Asia, where he held administrative posts. After leaving the Central Intelligence Agency, McGehee brought to the public his highly critical views, based on his experience. He has discussed and illustrated how the CIA's covert actions and interventionist policies can produce unfavorable outcomes. A 1981 allegation by McGehee about CIA involvement in the Indonesian killings of 1965–1966 was censored by the CIA, prompting the American Civil Liberties Union to sue on his behalf. The CIA prevailed.
Viktor Suvorov Male GRU Former Soviet military intelligence officer, who after his defection to the West in 1978, exposed in his books various secrets related to the Soviet military and foreign intelligence. The first book of his memoirs was published in 1981.
1984 Clive Ponting Male United Kingdom Ministry of Defence Senior civil servant in the UK Ministry of Defence who leaked classified documents to Labour Member of Parliament Tam Dalyell confirming that the General Belgrano was sunk by British forces during the Falklands War while outside the total exclusion zone, contradicting statements by the Thatcher Government.
1984 John Michael Gravitt Male General Electric Became the first individual in 40 years to file a qui tam lawsuit under the False Claims Act after the statute had been weakened in 1943. [29] Gravitt, a machinist foreman, sued GE for defrauding the United States Department of Defense when GE began falsely billing for work on the B1 Lancer bomber. Gravitt was laid off following his complaints to supervisors about the discrepancies. The case of Gravitt v. General Electric and Gravitt's deposition to Congress led to federal legislation bolstering the False Claims Act in 1986. [30] [31] The amended Act made it easier for whistleblowers to collect damages. Gravitt's suit proceeded under the 1986 amendments and GE settled the case for a then record $3.5 million. [32]
1984 Duncan Edmonds Male Canadian Government Canadian civil servant who reported to his chief, the top Canadian civil servant, that Minister of Defence Robert Coates had visited a West German strip club while on an official mission, with NATO documents in his possession, creating a security risk. Coates was asked to resign from Cabinet by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, who also fired Edmonds and made him persona non grata in government circles. [33]
1984(?) Ingvar Bratt Male Bofors Engineer who revealed himself as the anonymous source in the Bofors Scandal about illegal weapon exports. [34] An act that led to a new Swedish law [35] concerning company secrets which commonly is referred to as Lex Bratt.
1985 Cathy Massiter Female MI5 Former MI5 officer who accused the British security service of having over-zealously interpreted which groups qualified as subversive, thus justifying surveillance against them. Massiter revealed that MI5 had spied on trade unions, civil liberty organisations and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. [36] [37]
1985 Ronald J. Goldstein Male EBASCO Constructors Inc. Nuclear power whistleblower Goldstein was a supervisor employed by EBASCO, which was a major contractor for the construction of Houston Lighting and Power Company's South Texas Project (a complex of two nuclear power plants). In the summer of 1985, Goldstein identified safety problems to SAFETEAM, an internal compliance program established by EBASCO and Houston Lighting, including noncompliance with safety procedures, the failure to issue safety compliance reports, and quality control violations affecting the safety of the plant. SAFETEAM was promoted as an independent safe haven for employees to voice their safety concerns. The two companies did not inform their employees that they did not believe complaints reported to SAFETEAM had any legal protection. After he filed his report to SAFETEAM, Goldstein was fired. Subsequently, Goldstein filed suit under federal nuclear whistleblower statutes. The U.S. Department of Labor ruled that his submissions to SAFETEAM were protected and his dismissal was invalid, a finding upheld by Labor Secretary Lynn Martin. The ruling was appealed and overturned by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that private programs offered no protection to whistleblowers. After Goldstein lost his case, Congress amended the federal nuclear whistleblower law to provide protection reports made to internal systems and prevent retaliation against whistleblowers. [38]
1986 Roger Wensil Male B.F. Shaw Co. Roger D. Wensil was America's first nationally recognized whistleblower at a nuclear weapons facility. [39] In 1985, Wensil was wrongfully dismissed by the DuPont BF Shaw Company after exposing the illegal sale and use of drugs taking place at the Savannah River Nuclear Weapons Facility, which provided weapons-grade plutonium for the U.S. government. [40] Wensil was reinstated by the Department of Energy in 1987, but he again faced workplace retaliation and forced out of his job shortly after. [41] Wensil's case led to the passing of the nuclear weapon whistleblowers protection in 1992. [42]
1986 Mordechai Vanunu Male Israeli nuclear weapons program Revealed Israel's clandestine nuclear program to the British press. He spent seventeen and a half years in prison as a result, the first eleven of these in solitary confinement. After his release, sanctions were placed on him: among others, he was not allowed to leave Israel or speak to foreigners. The sanctions have been renewed every twelve months. At present, he is appealing a further six-month prison sentence imposed by an Israeli court for having spoken to foreigners and foreign press. [43] [44]
1987 Joy Adams Female B.F. Shaw Co. Joy P. Adams was terminated in retaliation after testifying in support of Roger Wensil, a whistleblower who disclosed safety violations at the federal Savannah River nuclear weapons facility in South Carolina. [45]
1987 Howard Samuel Nunn Male Duke Power Company Howard Samuel Nunn blew the whistle on the Duke Power Company and won his case in 1987. [46] Nunn alleged that he was fired from Duke Power Company's Catawba Nuclear Power Station for raising concerns about safety and quality control, according to the court decision. [47]
1987 Douglas Plumley Male Federal Prisoner Doug Plumley was a federal prisoner at the maximum-security prison in Lompoc, California in 1987. [48] Plumley lost his job with the federal prison training program after writing a letter of complaint about the use of allegedly hazardous chemicals at Lompoc. He then filed another complaint concerning his dismissal to the Department of Labor. Plumley's case led to a ruling by an administrative law judge that prison inmates can be considered “federal employees,” thus protected against employer retribution under the whistleblower protection law. [49]
1988 Joseph Macktal Male Halliburton Macktal was an electrician for Halliburton Brown and Root (HB&R) who witnessed hazardous conditions during the construction of the Comanche Peak nuclear power plant. [50] After he reported the safety issues to HB&R, the company's lawyers coerced him into signing a non-disclosure agreement that prohibited him from going to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with his concerns. [51] Macktal willfully violated his non-disclosure agreement, sparking a seven-year legal battle that resulted in the Department of Labor ultimately voiding his entire settlement agreement and allowing him to pursue his whistleblower case. [52] Macktal's case set a legal precedent for whistleblowers who reported safety violations within the nuclear industry by disallowing non-disclosure agreements. [53]
1988 Peter Wright Male MI5 Former science officer of MI5 who claimed in his book, Spycatcher, that the UK Security Service plotted to remove Prime Minister Harold Wilson from office and the Director General of MI5 was a Soviet spy. After its publication in Australia, which the Thatcher government tried to block, the government attempted to ban the book in Britain under the Official Secrets Act. Through litigation, it succeeded in imposing a gag order on English newspapers to prevent them from publishing Wright's allegations. The gag orders were upheld by the Law Lords. [54] [55] Eventually, in 1988, the book was cleared for legitimate sale when the Law Lords acknowledged that overseas publication meant it contained no secrets. [56] However, Wright was barred from receiving royalties from the sale of the book in the United Kingdom. In November 1991, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the British government had breached the European Convention of Human Rights in gagging its own newspapers. [57] [58] The British Government's legal cost were estimated at £250,000 in 1987. [59]
1988 Harry Templeton Male The Mirror Group Harry Templeton worked as a printer on newspapers owned by Robert Maxwell's Mirror Group. In 1985, Templeton was appointed as a trustee of the Mirror Group Pension Scheme, but was fired in 1988 after challenging Maxwell's misuses of pension funds. [60] Only after Maxwell's death a couple of years later was it revealed that Maxwell had stolen £400m of staff pension money.
1988 Roland Gibeault Male Genisco Technology Gibeault filed a qui tam lawsuit against defense subcontractor Genisco Technology Corp. after working undercover for 18 months with the FBI and DCIS to uncover the company's fraudulent test methods that were used to pass key components for the High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) missile. The FBI and DCIS case resulted in a plea-bargained $725,000 fine and three Genisco executives sent to federal prison. [61] [62] Gibeault, who was fired from Genisco following revelation of whistleblowing, received $131,250 of the fine. [63] In 1989, Gibeault and fellow employee Inge Maudal also filed qui tam actions against Genisco's parent company, Texas Instruments. [64]
1988 Michael Haddle Male Healthmaster, Inc. Worked for Healthmaster, Inc. and blew the whistle on whistleblower retaliation when he was fired from his job because he was involved and testified in a Medicare fraud case against Healthmaster. [65] He filed a complaint in 1998 and the Eleventh Circuit court ruled that he had not been retaliated against, but the Court of Appeals reversed that finding, also in 1998. The U.S. Department of Justice submitted an amicus brief in support of Haddle before the decision was reversed. [66]
1989 Douglas D. Keeth Male United Technologies Corporation Filed a qui tam lawsuit against United Technologies Corp. (UTX) where he held the title vice president of finance. Mr. Keeth and others had investigated billing practices at UTX's Sikorsky Aircraft division, uncovering inflated progress billings going back at least as far as 1982. UTX offered Mr. Keeth a $1 million severance payment if he would keep quiet, but Keeth rejected the offer. In 1994, UTX paid $150 million to the government and Keeth was awarded a bounty of $22.5 million. [67]
1989 William Schumer Male Hughes Aircraft Filed a lawsuit January 1989 alleging fraud by Hughes Aircraft with respect to the B-2 bomber. In 1997 the Supreme Court held that the claim should have been dismissed as based on invalid retroactive legislation because the alleged fraud occurred in 1982–1984, before the 1986 amendments to the Fraudulent Claims Act which might have permitted it. The government did not support Schumer in his lawsuit as it had determined the alleged fraud had actually benefited the government by shifting costs from the cost-plus B-2 contract to the fixed-price F-15 contract. [68]
1989–1991 Myron Mehlman Male Mobil A toxicologist, he warned managers at Mobil that the company's gasoline that was being sold in Japan contained benzene in excess of 5 percent, and that levels needed to be reduced. Upon his return to the United States, he was fired. He later successfully sued the company. [69]
Year Image Name Gender Organization Action
1990 Vera English Female General Electric Company Vera English was employed as a lab technician at a nuclear facility operated by General Electric Company (GE). [70] English was terminated after exposing widespread radioactive contamination in the facility. Her Supreme Court case, English v. General Electric Company, set precedent that allowed whistleblowers to pursue cases under state law. Her victory also demonstrated the application of whistleblower protection legislation in cases of whistleblowing in nuclear energy cases. [71]
1990 Arnold Gundersen Male Nuclear Energy Services Nuclear power whistleblower Arnold Gundersen discovered radioactive material in an accounting safe at Nuclear Energy Services (NES) in Danbury, Connecticut, the consulting firm where he held a $120,000-a-year job as senior vice president. [72] Three weeks after he notified the company president of what he believed to be radiation safety violations, Gundersen was fired. According to The New York Times, for three years, Gundersen "was awakened by harassing phone calls in the middle of the night" and he "became concerned about his family's safety". Gundersen believes he was blacklisted, harassed and fired for doing what he thought was right. [72] NES filed a $1.5 million defamation lawsuit against him that was settled out-of-court. A U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report concluded that there had been irregularities at NES, and the Office of the Inspector General reported that the NRC had violated its own regulations by sending business to NES.
1992 [73] Mark Whitacre Male Archer Daniels Midland PhD scientist and former Divisional President with Archer Daniels Midland, who worked with the FBI as a secret informant, to blow the whistle on price-fixing cartel in his company. This story is featured in the film The Informant! [74] [75] where Whitacre is portrayed by Matt Damon.
1992 Keith A. Schooley Male Keith A. Schooley (born 1952) is an American author and former stockbroker at Merrill Lynch, who brought attention to fraud and corruption within the firm at the Oklahoma and Texas offices in 1992 as a whistleblower. [76] As a result, he was terminated from the firm, [77] and sued the corporation in a case that went to the Oklahoma Supreme Court, [78] and Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. [79]
1992 Linda Mitchell Female Arizona Public Service Company While working at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Mitchell blew the whistle on the Arizona Public Service Company, which owned the generating station. [80] In 1985, Mitchel reported various safety concerns she had at Palo Verde to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and continued to bring up concerns to management about concerns regarding computer programs the facility used and the layout of the plant. [81] Mitchell filed a complaint in 1989 to the NRC, alleging that the Arizona Public Service Co. tried to suppress an NRC investigator's findings of safety issues at Palo Verde. [80] She was subjected to severe harassment in the workplace and in her personal life and won a Department of Labor discrimination lawsuit in 1992. [82] In 1994, Mitchell was granted permission to have an administrative public hearing before the NRC's Atomic Safety and Licensing Board she also asked for the three units at Palo Verde to be halted to 0% power until a review of the work environment could be conducted. [83]
1993 Sarah Thomas Female Arizona Public Service Arizona Public Service (APS) employee Sarah Thomas was harassed and retaliated against by her supervisor after she raised concern regarding safety and regulatory violation that occurred in her workplace. [84] She filed a complaint with the Department of Labor concerning the safety violations, failure to promote, and harassment on the job. APS was ordered to promote Thomas to Senior Test Technician and provide compensation for damages she suffered as the result of discriminatory treatment.
1994 William Marcus Male Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) As a Senior Science Advisor for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Marcus witnessed the Office of Drinking Water approve a policy that added fluoride to the nation's drinking water. [85] Marcus was fired after he reported the fluoride could increase cancer rates in the affected population. [86] His testimony led to the discovery of numerous frauds committed by major chemical companies who tried to silence his concerns. Marcus prevailed in front of an Administrative Law Judge and was reinstated with full back pay, as well as a large compensatory damage reward.
1994 André Cicolella Male French Institute for Research and Security André Cicolella showed that fetal malformations are associated with being exposed in utero to glycol ethers. The French Institute for Research and Security decided not to allow him to participate in a symposium that he was organizing on health risks linked with ether glycols, and fired him. In 1998 it was confirmed that he was right.
1995 William Sanjour Male United States Environmental Protection Agency William Sanjour worked for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for over 25 years, where he constantly challenged the safety practices of the agency and ensured the EPA properly dealt with hazardous waste. [87] In 1995, Sanjour won a landmark lawsuit that set a nationwide precedent and First Amendment right permitting federal employees to blow the whistle on their employers. [88] In Sanjour v. EPA, he challenged agency rules restricting EPA employees from talking to environmental groups, a decision that has not been overruled to this day. [89] Sanjour was the recipient of the 2007 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) Sentinel Award, which recognizes those who “choose truth over self.” [90]
1995 Allen Mosbaugh Male Georgia Power Company Reported safety concerns at Georgia Power Company in 1990 when he worked at the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant as a superintendent of engineering liaison. [91] In 1989, he sent the Nuclear Regulatory Commission a memo about a “violation of technical specifications” in regards to specific valves at the plant. In September 1990, Mosbaugh joined Marvin Hobby in petitioning the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to conduct a review of the Georgia Power Company and impose civil penalties for improper operation at the facility and illegally transferring control to the Southern Nuclear Operating Company. Mosbaugh also recorded his coworkers and superiors that documented safety violations. He was discharged from his job in October 1990 and filed a complaint alleging that his firing was an act of whistleblower retaliation under the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, but the administrative law judge ruled in 1992 that Georgia Power Company had not acted in retaliation. In 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a report that supported Mosbaugh's whistleblower retaliation claim. [92] In 1995, the Secretary of Labor concluded that Mosbaugh had been retaliated against after he engaged in “protected activity,” which reversed the 1992 ruling.
1996 Shannon Doyle Male Alabama Power Reported safety violations at the J.M Farley Nuclear Plant, run by Alabama Power, to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. [93] In 1989, Doyle filed a complaint against Hydro Nuclear Services under the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 when the company did not hire him as a “casual employee” because he did not sign a release that allowed the company to perform a background check.
1996 George Galatis Male Nuclear power industry Nuclear power whistleblower George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. [94] [95] The unsafe procedures meant that spent fuel rod pools at Unit 1 had the potential to boil, possibly releasing radioactive steam. [96] Galatis eventually took his concerns to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to find that they had "known about the unsafe procedures for years". As a result of going to the NRC, Galatis experienced "subtle forms of harassment, retaliation, and intimidation". [95] [97] The NRC Office of Inspector General investigated this episode and essentially agreed with Galatis in Case Number 95-771, the report of which tells the whole story. [98] George Galatis was the subject of a Time magazine cover story on March 4, 1996. [97] Millstone 1 was permanently closed in July 1998.
1996 Jeffrey Wigand Male Brown & Williamson Jeffrey Wigand had been recently fired from his position as vice president of research and development at tobacco company Brown & Williamson when, on February 4, 1996, he stated on the CBS news program 60 Minutes that the company intentionally manipulated the level of nicotine in cigarette smoke to addict smokers. Wigand claims that he was subsequently harassed and received anonymous death threats. He was portrayed by Russell Crowe in the 1999 film The Insider.
1996 Allan Cutler Male Canadian government The first whistleblower on the Canadian "AdScam" or sponsorship scandal. Without legal protection, he was fired by the Canadian government. As the case developed, federal legislation was passed to protect future whistleblowers in the Canadian civil service. Several convictions have been recorded to date with the case, with proceedings still in progress.
1996 David Franklin Male Parke-Davis Exposed illegal promotion of the epilepsy drug Neurontin for un-approved uses while withholding evidence that the drug was not effective for these conditions. Parke-Davis's new owners Pfizer eventually pleaded guilty and paid criminal and civil fines of $430 million. The case had widespread effects including: establishing a new standards for pharmaceutical marketing practices broadening the use of the False Claims Act to make fraudulent marketing claims criminal violations exposing complicity and active participation in fraud by renowned physicians and demonstrating how medical literature had been systematically adulterated by the pharmaceutical industry and its paid clinical consultants. Under the False Claims Act Dr Franklin receives $24.6m as part of the settlement agreement. [99]
1996 Michael Ruppert Male Los Angeles Police Department Former LAPD narcotics officer who contested the CIA director John Deutch's assertions that the CIA was not complicit in drug trafficking during a town hall meeting at Los Angeles' Locke High School on November 5, 1995. At the meeting, Ruppert publicly alleged the existence of classified CIA programs named "Amadeus", "Pegasus", and "Watchtower", claiming to possess evidence for the programs including redacted documents from "Watchtower", and stated that CIA officers had attempted to involve him in protecting these CIA operations during the late 1970s. [100] His account corresponds to similar allegations regarding Operation Watchtower. [101]
1996–98 Nancy Olivieri Female Apotex Starting in 1996, Olivieri was part of a group conducting a clinical trial in order to evaluate the use of a drug of Apotex, deferiprone, in treating persons with a blood disorder, thalassaemia. [102] During the course of the trial, Olivieri became concerned about evidence that pointed to the toxicity of the study drug and to the drug being inefficacious. Olivieri informed both the research ethics board that was monitoring the study and Apotex, the drug maker. The research ethics board instructed Olivieri to inform participants about her concerns. Apotex responded by noting that Olivieri had signed a confidentiality agreement as part of the drug trial and that informing participants about her concerns, the validity of which Apotex disputed, would violate that confidentiality agreement. Apotex threatened to vigorously pursue all legal remedies against her if she disclosed her conclusions to patients. Olivieri disclosed her concerns to her patients and Apotex ended the portion of the study in which she was participating. In 1998, the New England Journal of Medicine published her paper suggesting that deferiprone led to progressive hepatic fibrosis. [103] [104]
1997 Frederic Whitehurst Male Federal Bureau of Investigation A chemist at the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation who was the FBI Laboratory's foremost expert on explosives residue in the 1990s, Whitehurst became the first modern-day FBI whistleblower. [105] He reported a lack of scientific standards and serious flaws in the FBI Lab, including in the first World Trade Center bombing cases, and the Oklahoma City bombing case. [106] Whitehurst's whistleblower disclosures triggered an overhaul of the FBI's crime lab following a report by the U.S. Department of Justice Inspector General in 1997. [107] [108] In 1997, Whitehurst testified at the House Judiciary Subcommittee's hearings on the FBI crime lab. [109] [110] Dr. Whitehurst filed a federal lawsuit claiming whistleblower retaliation, and he reached a settlement with the FBI worth more than $1.16 million. [111] Whitehurst now directs the FBI Oversight Project of the National Whistleblower Center.
1997 David Shayler Male MI5 Along with girlfriend Annie Machon, resigned from MI5 to expose alleged criminal acts by the UK Secret Services, including a failed assassination attempt on Muammar Gaddafi. Shayler also accused the Security Services of planting false stories in the press, substantiated in one example by a court. [112]
1997 Christoph Meili Male UBS A night guard at a Swiss bank, he discovered that his employer was destroying records of savings by Holocaust victims, which the bank was required to return to heirs of the victims. After the Swiss authorities sought to arrest Meili, he was given political asylum in the United States. [113] [114]
1997 Alan Parkinson Male Australian Government Alan Parkinson is a mechanical and nuclear engineer who has written the 2007 book, Maralinga: Australia's Nuclear Waste Cover-up, about the clean-up of the British atomic bomb test site at Maralinga in South Australia. [115] In 1993, Parkinson became the key person on the Maralinga clean-up project, representing the then federal Labor government. By 1997, however, there was much cost-cutting involved which compromised the project, and personal differences about how the project should proceed, which led to the sacking of Parkinson by the new Howard government. [116] The clean-up was totally unsatisfactory according to Parkinson and he exposed the situation through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, provoking a strong rebuttal and personal abuse from the government. [116]
1998 Shiv Chopra Male Canadian government A microbiologist and activist who was involved in one of the first major whistleblowing incidents in the Canadian public service.
1998 Paul van Buitenen Male European Commission Accused European Commission members of corruption. (See Resignation of the Santer Commission).
1998 Marc Hodler Male International Olympic Committee IOC member who blew the whistle on the Winter Olympic bid scandal for the 2002 Salt Lake City games.
1998 Linda Tripp Female Clinton Administration Tripp was a White House staff member who disclosed to the Office of Independent Counsel that Monica Lewinsky committed perjury and attempted to suborn perjury, and President Bill Clinton committed misconduct, by denying the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal in the Paula Jones federal civil rights suit. [117] A victim of retaliation by the Clinton Administration, Tripp successfully sued the Department of Defense and the Justice Department for releasing information from her security file and employment file to the news media in violation of the Privacy Act of 1974. [118] In 2003, Tripp settled with the federal government for over $595,000. In addition, she received a retroactive promotion and retroactive pay for the years 1998, 1999, and 2000, a pension and was cleared to work for the federal government again. [119]
1999 Harry Markopolos Male Early whistleblower of suspected securities fraud by Bernard Madoff, tipping off the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) repeatedly.
1999 Youri Bandazhevsky Male In 1999, Youri Bandazhevsky released the results that he accumulated about the health problems of children in the contaminated area of Chernobyl. He is arrested in July 1999.
1990s–00s Marlene Garcia-Esperat Female Philippines Department of Agriculture Former analytical chemist for the Philippines Department of Agriculture who became a journalist to expose departmental corruption, and was murdered in 2005. Her assailants later surrendered to police, and have testified that they were hired by officials in the Department of Agriculture. [120]
1990s–00s Janet Howard, Tanya Ward Jordan and Joyce E. Megginson Female United States Department of Commerce Exposed widespread systemic racism and retaliation within the Department of Commerce against African-American employees. [121]

In 2003, a California police officer was shot and killed while wearing a vest made with Zylon fiber, prompting Westrick to file a False Claims Act lawsuit against SCBA and Toyobo Co., Ltd. in 2004. [156] In 2005, the United States Government intervened in the case on behalf of Westrick and after a 13-year legal battle with the Japanese manufacturer of Zylon, Toyobo Co. Ltd., the company agreed to pay a $66 million settlement to the United States for damages. [157] [158]

Watkins emailed Enron founder Kenneth Lay about fraudulent accounting at the company, and two months later Enron lost $1.2 billion in shareholder equity. Four months later, the company went bankrupt and had to seek bankruptcy protection. [169] [170] When Enron was investigated by Congress, Watkins testified about the fraud at Enron and her experience going to Lay about the issues in the company. [171]

She has since been active in whistleblower advocacy, speaking at the 2019 celebration of National Whistleblower Day. [172] Watkins also submitted comments in August 2019 about the SEC's proposed amendments to their whistleblower program. [173] Watkins was named Time's People of the Year in 2002. [174] [175]

She was, in her professional life, formerly a vice president at UBS Financial Services. [180]

City officials and pension board trustees created a multi-year smear campaign, [181] including filing ethics charges against her [182] and plotting to have her arrested by the San Diego City Police. [183]

The scandal caused widespread fallout in the city's political and financial sectors. [184] Several city officials resigned, including the City Auditor, City Manager, City Treasurer [185] and the Mayor. The City became the target of two federal investigations [186] and in November 2006, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission entered an order sanctioning the City of San Diego for committing securities fraud. [186]

Shipione was eventually proven right about her concerns [187] and received public recognition for her pension system related services from many civic organizations in San Diego.

Sandra Martinez Cam, who is a native of Batuan, Masbate, Philippines rose to fame after exposing several scams involving public officials and agencies in the Philippine government. Among these are the "jueteng" (illegal numbers game) scandal, the presence of illegal drugs and high-powered firearms at the Bureau of Corrections, and the escape of the Reyes brothers via the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA). An advocate of women's rights, she also uncovered the sex for flight scandal which victimized several female Overseas Filipino Workers in the Middle East. More recently, the fearless Masbatena said she has obtained information that would shed light on the infamous "tanim-bala" (planting of bullets) scheme at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), which has been going on since 2012. [217] [218]

Dufault presented research finding to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2005 that showed caustic soda (lye) used in the production and manufacturing of High Fructose Corn Syrup, left trace amounts of mercury in foods containing High Fructose Corn Syrup. After independent testing verified her finding, [219] she attempted to publish her research and was denied usage of Federal extramural data. She left the FDA in 2008 to make her research public. [220] [221]

Richard Levernier is an American nuclear power whistleblower. Levernier worked for 23 years as a nuclear security professional, and identified security problems at U.S. nuclear facilities as part of his job. Specifically, after 9/11, he identified problems with contingency planning to protect U.S. nuclear plants from terrorist attacks. He said that the assumption that attackers would both enter and exit from facilities was not valid, since suicide terrorists would not need to exit. In response to this complaint, the U.S. Department of Energy withdrew Levernier's security clearance and he was assigned to clerical work. Levernier approached the United States Office of Special Counsel (OSC), which handles U.S. federal whistleblower matters. It took the OSC four years to vindicate Levernier, ruling that the Department's retaliation was illegal – but the OSC could not reinstate Levernier's security clearance, so he was unable to regain work in nuclear security. [222] [223]

Turner also blew the whistle when she witnessed her colleagues stealing items from Ground Zero of 9/11 during inspections of the site. [260] In 2007, Turner won the final judgement when the Department of Justice vetoed the FBI's appeal of a jury verdict that found the FBI guilty of illegal retaliation against Turner. [261] [262]

Turner's case has since been used by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) and the U.S. Senate in understanding how to improve the FBI Whistleblower Program. [263] [264]

[286] Eli Lilly pleaded guilty to actively promoting Zyprexa for off-label uses, particularly for the treatment of dementia in the elderly. The $1.415 billion penalty included an $800 million civil settlement and a $515 million criminal fine—the largest criminal fine for an individual corporation in United States history. [287] Contingent upon the United States receiving the Federal Settlement amount, the nine whistle blowers shared $78,870,877, of the federal share of the civil settlement. [288]

In 2018, news of a massive money laundering scheme and an anonymous internal whistleblower at Danske Bank broke. [317] [318] Wilkinson's name was illegally leaked a few days later. [319] In December 2018, Wilkinson testified in front of the Danish Parliament, discussing his role as a whistleblower and addressing the EU whistleblower laws. [320] [321] Wilkinson's case was featured on the CBS 60 Minutes television program in May 2019. [322]

He appeared before the Philippine Senate on September 15, 2016 [327] during a hearing on extra-judicial killings. At the hearing, Matobato recounted his experiences as a killer and narrated how he killed his victims. He revealed that Duterte once killed a certain Hamizola using an Uzi, emptying the gun on the victim. On October 7, 2016, Edgar Matobato was turned over by Senator Antonio Trillanes to the Philippine National Police after an arrest warrant was issued to him. [328]

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Truman and the Hiroshima Cult by Robert P Newman (Michigan State University Press, 2004)

Rain of Ruin: Photographic History of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by Donald M Goldstein, Katherine V Dillon, J Michael Wenger (Brassey's Inc, 1995)

Hiroshima in History and Memory edited by Michael J Hogan (Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision by Robert James Maddox (University of Missouri Press, 2004)

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Hiroshima: Three Witnesses edited by Richard H Minear (Princeton University Press, 1990)

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An Elusive Bottom Line on the Threat

Over the course of the exercise series, careful attention was given to the possible solidifying of a bottom line on the gravity of the cyberspace-based strategic IW threat. Many existing information systems do appear to be vulnerable to some level of disruption or misuse. At the same time, developments in cyberspace are so dynamic that existing vulnerabilities may well be ameliorated as part of the natural building of immunities to threats that accompany any such rapidly evolving entity. However, our dependence on cyberspace and information systems generally is also growing rapidly&mdashraising unsettling questions as to whether the "immune system" process can "keep up" and thus prevent serious strategic vulnerabilities from emerging and being exploited.

We looked for, but did not find, any strong statistical consensus on just where people think we are now on the threat spectrum portrayed in Figure S.2, or where we might be heading. We did observe, however, that over the course of the exercise, the general perspective on the magnitude of the strategic IW problem almost invariably appeared to move downward along the graph of Figure S.2. This experience mirrored that of the authors&mdashthe more time spent on this subject, the more one saw tough problems lacking concrete solutions and, in some cases, lacking even good ideas about where to start.

Figure S.2. A Broad Spectrum of Perspectives

Historical examples of energy wars - History

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