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Siege of Bellegarde, May-25 June 1793

Siege of Bellegarde, May-25 June 1793

Siege of Bellegarde, May-25 June 1793

The siege of Bellegarde (May-25 June 1793) was an early Spanish success during the War of the Convention which saw them capture the important French border fortress of Bellegarde, on the main road across the eastern Pyrenees from Catalonia to Perpignan. The War of the Convention began on 7 March 1793 with a French declaration of war, but it was the Spanish who moved first. In April an army under General Ricardós advanced across the border and approached Perpignan. A small Spanish force was left at Bellegarde, which sits on a hill to the south-west of the town of Le Perthus, to prevent the 1,200 strong garrison, under Colonel Bois Brûlé from operating in the Spanish rear, but in May Ricardós received reinforcements, and he began a full scale blockade of the fortress.

The Spaniards summoned the garrison to surrender, and then began a full scale bombardment. Three batteries of mortars and cannons were set up outside the fortress. The Spanish bombardment lasted for forty days. Forty-two of the fifty French guns were dismounted, and eventually a practical breach was made in the walls. Bois-Brûlé assembled a council of war which decided to capitulate. On 25 June the 900 surviving members of the garrison marched out with the full honours of war and went into captivity in Spain. The Spanish campaign in eastern France lasted into the next year, but in May 1794 the French began their own siege of Bellegarde, and on 17 September 1794 the Spanish garrison surrendered.

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Captain General Ricardos and his Spanish army defeated the French in a skirmish at Céret on 20 April 1793. Ώ] The Spanish beat Louis-Charles de Flers and the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees at the Battle of Mas Deu on 19 May. After this success, Ricardos turned back and invested the Fort de Bellegarde. ΐ] The Siege of Bellegarde lasted from 23 May until 24 June when the French garrison's 1,450 survivors capitulated. Α] During the siege, the Spanish army captured the Fort de Bains on 3 June and the Fort de la Garde on 5 June. These were outworks of Bellegarde. Β] While the Spanish reduced Bellegarde, de Flers was busy trying to turn his raw recruits into soldiers. He was able to secure the services of trained coastal gunners to man his artillery. He had a number of field fortifications built to defend the area. Γ]

ベルガルド包囲戦 (1793年)

ベルガルド包囲戦(ベルガルドほういせん、フランス語: Siège de Bellegarde )は、フランス革命戦争中の1793年5月23日から6月24日にかけて、 アントニオ・リカルドス (英語版) 率いるスペイン軍がボワブリューレ大佐率いる ベルガルド砦 (英語版) のフランス駐留軍を降伏させた戦闘。この包囲戦はピレネー戦争の一部として行われ、ベルガルド砦を得たスペインはピレネー山脈の重要な通り道を支配することができた。ベルガルド砦は山上にあってフランス・スペイン辺境のル・ペルテュを見下ろしていた。

スペインが1793年4月中旬にフランス第一共和政に宣戦布告すると、 陸軍総司令官 (英語版) の アントニオ・リカルドス (英語版) は戦略上の問題に直面した。ベルガルド砦がフランスへの主要道路を支配している以上、リカルドスはベルガルド砦を包囲、占領しなければその主要道路を補給路として使えなかった。そのため、リカルドスは兵士4,500人を率いてピレネー山脈を南西20kmのところで越え、サン=ローラン=ド=セルダンで下山した。リカルドスはフランスの守備軍400人を追い払った後、残りの軍勢4,400人で テック川 (英語版) 沿岸のセレにいたフランス軍と戦った。フランス軍は正規軍800人と国民衛兵1,000人で大砲4門を有していたが、混乱に陥って逃走した。フランス軍はスペイン軍のマスケット銃撃で100から200人を失ったほか、テック川を泳いで渡ろうとした人のうち約200人が溺死した。リカルドスの軍勢は負傷者17人を出しただけだった [2] 。リカルドスはボワブリューレの軍勢がスペインの補給部隊を襲撃できないようベルガルド砦近くに派遣軍を配置した [3] 。

セレを奪取したことで、リカルドスは自軍をベルガルド砦の後ろに配置した。増援を受けた後、彼は更に北東、 トロイヤ (英語版) 近くまで進軍した。リカルドスのスペイン軍7千はここで ルイ=シャルル・ド・フレール (英語版) 少将率いるフランスの 東ピレネー軍 (英語版) に遭遇した。5月19日に生起したマ・デウの戦いにおいて、リカルドスはド・フレールに勝利、ド・フレールの軍勢は戦死150、負傷280、大砲3門、弾薬車6台の損害を出した。スペインは戦死者が34人だった。士気が低下したフランス兵は北の首府ペルピニャンへ撤退したが、国民衛兵の1個大隊が反乱を起こして解体された。リカルドスは追撃せず、バルセロナとの補給路を支配したベルガルド砦の包囲に専念した [4] 。

包囲戦は5月23日に始まった。フランスの駐留軍は少なくとも大砲41門と臼砲7門を有していた。スペイン軍の兵士6千と大砲34門はまず北側にある外堡2箇所への攻撃に集中した。 フランス亡命軍 (英語版) のヴァレスピア大隊( Vallespir )はスペイン軍とともに戦った。リカルドスは5月30日までにレ・バン要塞( Fort les Bains )から1,200ペースのところに設置された砲台に大砲16門を配備した。6月3日、砲撃ののちフランス軍350人の守る外堡が降伏した。2日後、ド・ラ・ギャルド要塞( Fort de la Garde )は水源を切断されて降伏、フランス軍200人が捕虜になった。包囲戦の最中、フランス軍3,350人が輸送部隊を要塞に護送しようとしたが、5月29日に追い返された [5] 。

ベルガルド砦を確保したことで、スペイン軍はペルテュ峠を補給路として使えるようになった。リカルドスはルシヨンの首府ペルピニャンに進撃したが、1793年7月17日のペルピニャンの戦いで敗北した。ド・フレール率いるフランス軍1万2千の損害は死傷者800人、脱走者600人、大砲1門であり [8] 、スペイン軍の損害は約1千人だった。ド・フレールはリカルドスがベルガルド砦を包囲している間に新しく徴兵された兵士を訓練して、ペルピニャンで野戦築城を行った [9] 。フランス軍は9月17日のペレトルテの戦いで再びスペイン軍に勝利したが、その5日後のトロイヤの戦いではスペイン軍が勝利した [10] 。

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Fort de Bellegarde occupied the Spanish army for a month after the battle.

The next day, Perpignan was crowded with demoralized soldiers and frightened refugees. The local political leaders appropriated churches, convents, and the homes of émigrés to house the refugees. De Flers issued an address, "Soldiers, great cowardice has been committed. Some of the defenders of liberty have fled the satellites of despotism. " Α] One volunteer battalion declared that it would not fight the Spanish and had to be disbanded. Historian Digby Smith credited the Spanish army with only 7,000 men in six line battalions, eight grenadier companies, and 30 provincial militia companies. He listed French casualties as 150 killed and 280 wounded, with three 6-pound cannons and six ammunition wagons becoming prizes of the Spanish. The Spanish admitted losing 34 killed but did not list the number of wounded. Rather than follow up his badly shaken opponents, Ricardos chose to turn back and invest the Fort de Bellegarde. Ζ] This fortress dominated the main road through the Pyrenees at the Col du Perthus. Η]

The Siege of Bellegarde began on 23 May and lasted until 24 June when Colonel Boisbrulé surrendered the 1,450 surviving members of the garrison. Another 30 men had been killed and 56 wounded. The fortress was armed with 41 cannons and seven mortars. Ricardos maintained 6,000 Spanish troops and 34 guns in the siege lines. ⎖] While the main siege went on, the Spanish were also obliged to reduce two outworks, Fort les Bains and Fort de la Garde. These places surrendered on 3 and 5 June, respectively. De Flers tried to send a resupply convoy into Bellegarde on 29 May, but the effort failed when the 3,350-man escort was driven off. ⎗]

On 24 May, de Flers began construction of the Camp de l'Union. This was laid out under the walls of Perpignan between the village of Cabestany on the east to the mill of Orles on the west. As a result of the battle, Dagobert was elevated in rank to general of division while Sauret was promoted to colonel. On the Spanish side, Osuna proved to be a difficult subordinate and was transferred to the Army of Navarre in the western Pyrenees in October. Α]

American Indian Movement (AIM) ends occupation of Wounded Knee

On the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, armed members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) surrender to federal authorities, ending their 71-day siege of Wounded Knee, site of the infamous massacre of 300 Sioux by the U.S. 7th Cavalry in 1890.

AIM was founded in 1968 by Russell Means, Dennis Banks and other Native-American leaders as a militant political and civil rights organization. From November 1969 to June 1971, AIM members occupied Alcatraz Island off San Francisco, saying they had rights to it under a treaty provision granting them unused federal land. In November 1972, AIM members briefly occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C., to protest programs controlling reservation development.

Their actions were acclaimed by many Native Americans, but on the Pine Ridge Reservation, Oglala Sioux Tribal President Dick Wilson had banned all AIM activities. AIM considered his government corrupt and dictatorial, and planned the occupation of Wounded Knee as a means of forcing a federal investigation of his administration. By taking Wounded Knee, The AIM leaders also hoped to force an investigation of other reservations, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and broken Indian treaties. In addition to its historical significance, Wounded Knee was one of the poorest communities in the United States and shared with the other Pine Ridge settlements some of the country’s lowest rates of life expectancy.

On February 27, 1973, some 200 AIM-led Sioux seized control of Wounded Knee, taking 11 allies of Dick Wilson hostage as local authorities and federal agents descended on the reservation. The next day, AIM members traded gunfire with the federal marshals surrounding the settlement and fired on automobiles and low-flying planes that dared come within rifle range. Russell Means began negotiations for the release of the hostages, demanding that the U.S. Senate launch an investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Pine Ridge, and all Sioux reservations in South Dakota, and that the Senate Foreign Relations Committee hold hearings on the scores of Indian treaties broken by the U.S. government.

The Wounded Knee occupation lasted for a total of 71 days, during which time two Sioux men were shot to death by federal agents. One federal agent was paralyzed after being shot. On May 8, the AIM leaders and their supporters surrendered after White House officials promised to investigate their complaints. Russell Means and Dennis Banks were arrested, but on September 16, 1973, the charges against them were dismissed by a federal judge because of the U.S. government’s unlawful handling of witnesses and evidence.

Violence continued on the Pine Ridge Reservation throughout the rest of the 1970s, with several more AIM members and supporters losing their lives in confrontations with the U.S. government. In 1975, two FBI agents and a Native-American man were killed in a massive shoot-out between federal agents and AIM members and local residents. In a controversial trial, AIM member Leonard Peltier was found guilty of first-degree murder and sentenced to two consecutive life terms.

With many of its leaders in prison, AIM disbanded in 1978. Local AIM groups continued to function, however, and in 1981 one group occupied part of the Black Hills in South Dakota. The U.S. government took no steps to honor broken Indian treaties, but in the courts some tribes won major settlements from federal and state governments in cases involving tribal land claims. Russell Means continued to advocate Native-American rights at Pine Ridge and elsewhere and in 1988 was a presidential candidate for the Libertarian Party. In 2001, Means attempted to run for the governorship of New Mexico, but his candidacy was disallowed because procedure had not been followed.

Beginning in 1992, Means appeared in several films, including Last of the Mohicans. He also had a guest spot on HBO’s Curb Your Enthusiasm. His autobiography, Where White Men Fear to Tread, was published in 1997. Means died on October 22, 2012, at age 72.

Bitka kod Mas Deua

Bitka kod Mas Deua (šp. Batalla de Mas Deu), ponekad navođena i kao Bitka kod Mas d'Eaua (fr. Bataille de Mas d'Eu), se odigrala od 17. do 19. maja 1793. godine između španskih snaga pod generalom Antoniom Ricardosom na jednoj, i francuskih republikanskih snaga pod generalom Louzis-Cahrelsom de Flersom na drugoj strani, te je predstavljala prvi značajniji okršaj Pirinejskog rata, odnosno na južnom bojištu Rata Prve koalicije.

Do bitke je došlo nekoliko mjeseci nakon što je francuska revolucionarna vlada Kraljevini Španiji, svom višedecenijskom savezniku iz ideoloških razloga, ohrabrena dotadašnjim uspjesima protiv Austrijanaca i Prusa, objavila rat. Usprkso toga, francuske trupe na južnoj granici su početak sukoba dočekale potpuno nespremne, dijelom zbog revolucionarnog kaosa, a dijelom zbog značajnog slabijeg broja i kvalitete ljudstva, odnosno oficirskog kadra u odnosu na druga bojišta. To su Španci iskoristili kako bi na proljeće pokrenuli ofanzivu pod generalom Ricardosom, čiji je cilj prodrijeti u oblast Rousillona, koja je tradicionalno pripadala Španiji. 17. aprila su prilikom napredovanja španske snage na rijeci Tech u potpunosti razbile jedan francuski bataljon, a nakon čega je general Mathieu Henri Marchant de La Houlière, ostarjeli zapovjednik francuske Pirinejske armije 30. aprila počinio samoubistvo.

Francuske snage na Pirinejima su nakon toga podijeljena na Zapadnopirinejsku i Istočnopirinejsku armiju, pri čemu je potonju preuzeo mladi i energični de Flers. Njegove snage, koje su pojačali kontingenti dovučeni sa italijanske granice, su zauzeli utvrđeni logor na mjestu nekadašnjeg templarskog zamka Mansus Dei. De Flers je planirao izvesti komplicirani napad na Špance, iako je raspolagao sa značajno manjim efektivima u ljudstvu. Ricardos je, pak, koristeći tu nadmoć u ljudstvu, 16. maja otpočeo operacije poslavši dio svojih snaga na sjever da zauzmu selo Thuir i tako zatvore dio odstupnice francuskim snagama na sjeveru. Sljedeći je dan Ricardos nastojao Francuze natjerati na povlačenje artiljerijskim bombardiranjem zamka, ali su oni, zaštićeni utvrdom, ostali na svojim položajima. Ricarods je opći napad naredio 18. maja Francuzi su pružali otpor, ali su Španci isto tako uspješno odbili njihove pokušaje kontranapada borba se nastavila do duboko u noć, kada je postalo jasno da su francuske linije previše rastegnute i da će španska nadmoć u ljudstvu doći do izražaja. Incident u kome su neiskusne francuske snage tokom noći pucale jedni na druge je doveo do panike u njihovim redovima, a potom do kaotičnog povlačenja prema Peripgnanu, gdje se panika proširila i na lokalno stanovništvo.

Ricardos je, međutim, odbio priliku da de Flersu zada odlučujući udarac. Umjesto toga je, u nastojanju da osigura komunikacijske linije preko teško prohodnih planina, svoje snage okrenuo na jug prema francuskom garnizonu u tvrđavi Bellegarde, koga će staviti pod opsadu. On se predao tek 24. juna, omogućivši de Flersu da konsolidira svoju vojsku i sa njom nanese Špancima poraz u bitci kod Perpignana.

Opsada Bellegardea (1793)

Opsada Bellegardea se odigrala od 23. maja do 24. juna 1793. kada su za vrijeme Pirinejskog rata španske trupe pod generalom Antoniom Ricardosom nastojale zauzeti Fort de Bellegarde, strateški važnu tvrđavu na francusko-španskoj granici, koju je branio [[Prva francuska republika|francuski republikanski] granizon pod pukovnikom Boisbruleom. Do opsade je došlo nešto više od mjesec dana od početka španske ofenzive čiji je cilj bio prodor u špansku oblast Rousillon, i u kojoj je Ricardos, koristeći sporedne puteve i brojčanu nadmoć, uspio prodrijeti na francusku teritoriju i nanijeti niz poraza francuskim snagama, uključujući bitku kod Mas Deusa gdje je 19. maja razbijena francuska Istočnopirinejska armija generala de Flersa. Ricardos, međutim, nije odlučio nastaviti napredovanje i zauzeti Perpignan, jer je smatrao da za nastavak ofenzive mora prethodno osigurati komunikacije u svojoj pozadini, uključujući onu koju je kontrolirala Fort de Bellegarde, tvrđava izgrađena po nacrtima znamenitog Vaubana i čiji je garnizon, usprkos malobrojnosti, raspolagao značajnim brojem artiljerijskih oruđa. Zbog toga se opsada izuzetno odužila, te je francuski zapovjednik kapitulirao tek 24. juna, nakon šti su Španci uspjeli napraviti prolaz u njenim zidovima, odnosno ušutkali francusku artiljeriju. Tako dugotrajni otpor je omogućio de Flersu da reorganizira svoje redove i Špancima nanese poraz u bitci kod Perpignana. Španci su Bellegarde držali sve do sljedeće godine, kada su je nakon opsade ponovno zauzeli Francuzi.


Since invading French Rousillon in April 1793, Captain General Ricardos and his Spanish army won a string of successes over the defending forces of the First French Republic. The Siege of Bellegarde ended with a French capitulation on 24 June 1793. [3] Since June, the Spanish army maintained itself a few kilometers south of Perpignan, the department capital. In early September, Ricardos made a bid to isolate and capture the fortress of Perpignan by sending two divisions around its western side to cut the road to Narbonne. Meanwhile, he bombarded the city from the south. French troops under General of Division Eustache Charles d'Aoust and General of Brigade Jacques Gilles Henri Goguet attacked the positions of Spanish Lieutenant General Jerónimo Girón-Moctezuma, Marquis de las Amarilas at Peyrestortes and Lieutenant General Juan de Courten at Le Vernet. The resulting Battle of Peyrestortes on 17 September was an important French victory. The badly shaken Spanish army regrouped near Trouillas. [4]

The day after Peyrestortes, General of Division Luc Siméon Auguste Dagobert was appointed commander of the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees. Desiring to take advantage of the recent victory and urged on by Representative-on-mission Claude Fabre, Dagobert decided to attack Ricardos in his camp at Trouillas. [2]

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1927 Henry Ford announces that he is ending production of the Model T Ford

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    21st European Cup: Liverpool beats Borussia Monchengladbach 3-1 at Rome Stanley Cup Final, Boston Garden, Boston, MA: 3-peat for Montreal Canadiens beat Boston Bruins, 4-1 as Mario Tremblay scores twice 4-2 series victory American Airlines DC-10 crashes on takeoff from Chicago killing 273 including 2 on the ground Israel begins to return Sinai to Egypt Raul Gonzales of Mexico completes 50,000 m walk in record 3:41:38.4

Film Release

1979 "Alien", directed by Ridley Scott and starring Sigourney Weaver is released

    "Musical Chairs" closes at Rialto Theater NYC after 15 performances Jacek Wszoka of Poland sets high jump record (7'8") Indianapolis 500: Johnny Rutherford wins in 3:29:59.572 (229.914 km/h)

Baseball Record

1981 Boston Red Sox Carl Yastrzemski (41) is 4th to play 3,000 MLB baseball games (Cobb, Musial & Aaron)

Event of Interest

1983 "Return of the Jedi" (Star Wars Episode VI), produced by George Lucas first released

    1st US National Missing Children's Day is proclaimed Fire in Nassermeer, Egypt, kills 357 France performs nuclear test Kirk Gibson (Tigers) & Jorge Orta (Blue Jays) hit inside park HRs 27th European Cup: Hamburg beats Juventus 1-0 at Athens Det Tigers lose to Seattle 7-3 ends record tying 17 consecutive wins Red Sox trade pitcher Dennis Eckersley to Cubs for Bill Buckner

Event of Interest

1985 Allan Border scores 4th successive 1st class 100 (v Derbyshire)

    Cyclone ravages Bangladesh 11,000 killed 95-year-old woman scores a hole-in-one in Florida Ferry boat Shamia sinks on Maghna River Bangladesh, 600 killed Hands Across America - 6.5 million people hold hands from California to NY

Baseball Record

1986 KC Royal George Brett gets his 2,000th hit

    Virgilio Barco elected president of Colombia 32nd European Cup: PSV Eindhoven beats Benfica (0-0, 6-5 on penalties) at Stuttgart Eastern Airlines graduates it 1st class of non-union pilots Mariners trade Mark Langston to Montreal for Randy Johnson

Election of Interest

1989 Mikhail Gorbachev elected Executive President in the Soviet Union

    Stanley Cup Final, Montreal Forum, Montreal, Quebec: Calgary Flames beat Montreal Canadiens, 4-2 to win series 4 games to 2 Flames' first SC title

Music Recording

1989 Weird Al Yankovic records parody song "She Drives Like Crazy"

    "People Are Still Having Sex" by LaTour hits #35 Israel evacuates 14,000 Ethiopian Jews Stanley Cup Final, Metropolitan Sports Center, Bloomington, MN: Pittsburgh Penguins beat Minnesota North Stars, 8-0 for a 4-2 series win Penguins' first Final series appearance

Event of Interest

1992 Jay Leno becomes permanent host of "The Tonight Show"

    NY Yankees score 9 runs before 1st out in 8th inn, beat Brewers 13-7 Oscar Luigi Scalfaro elected President of Italy

Event of Interest

1994 Emmy 21st Daytime Award presentation - Susan Lucci not nominated

Event of Interest

1994 Mark Messier scores a natural hat trick for the New York Rangers in game 6 of the NHL Eastern Conference Finals

    The Bosnian Serb Army kills 72 youngsters in the Bosnian city of Tuzla. Jennifer Maria Holsten, 18, crowned Miss Filipino-American 1st Super Rugby Final, Eden Park, Auckland: Blues win inaugural title with a 45-21 victory over the Natal Sharks fullback Adrian Cashmore lands 3 penalties & 3 conversions for the home team

Event of Interest

1997 Minnesota Twins retire Kirby Puckett's uniform #

    Todd and Mel Stottlemyre become 1st father and son to win 100 games A military coup in Sierra Leone replaces President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah with Major Johnny Paul Koromah. NHL Eastern Conference Final: Philadelphia Flyers beat New York Rangers, 4 games to 1 The United States House of Representatives releases the Cox Report detailing People's Republic of China's nuclear espionage against the U.S. over prior two decades Liberation Day of Lebanon. Israel withdraws its army from most of the Lebanese territory after 22 years of its first invasion in 1978.

Event of Interest

2000 53rd Cannes Film Festival: "Dancer in the Dark" directed by Lars von Trier and starring Björk (Best Actress) wins the Palme d'Or

Event of Interest

2000 Laureus World Sports Awards, Monte-Carlo Sporting, Monaco: Sportsman: Tiger Woods Sportswoman: Marion Jones (rescinded) Team: Manchester United FC

    32-year-old Erik Weihenmayer, of Boulder, Colorado, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest 54th Cannes Film Festival: "The Son's Room" directed by Nanni Moretti wins the Palme d'Or A train crash in Tenga, Mozambique kills 197 people. China Airlines Flight 611: A Boeing 747-200 breaks apart in mid-air and plunges into the Taiwan Strait killing 225 people 47th Eurovision Song Contest: Marie N for Latvia wins singing "I Wanna" in Tallinn Super Rugby Final, Jade Stadium, Christchurch: Crusaders win 4th title with a 31-13 thumping of the ACT Brumbies flyhalf Andrew Mehrtens boots 3 penalties, 2 conversions and a dropped goal for the winners Néstor Kirchner becomes President of Argentina after defeating Carlos Menem. He is the first elected President since the economic crisis. Indianapolis 500: French born Brazilian driver Gil de Ferran passes Penske teammate and defending champion Hélio Castroneves with 31 laps remaining for his first Indy 500 win 56th Cannes Film Festival: "Elephant" directed by Gus Van Sant wins the Palme d'Or 13th UEFA Champions League Final: Liverpool beats Milan (3-3, 3-2 on penalties)

Ostankino Tower

2007 The Ostankino Tower in Moscow catches fire for the second time

    Indianapolis 500: Scott Dixon of New Zealand wins ahead of Vítor Meira and Marco Andretti 19th winner from pole and first victor from NZ 61st Cannes Film Festival: "The Class" directed by Laurent Cantet wins the Palme d'Or

Event of Interest

2008 Senior PGA Championship Men’s Golf, Oak Hill CC: Jay Haas wins his second title in the event by 1 stroke from Germany’s Bernhard Langer

    North Korea conducts its second nuclear test while also conducting several missile tests Thailand’s economy shrank more than expected in the first quarter of 2009, contracting the most in a decade and plunging the nation into recession

Event of Interest

2011 Oprah Winfrey airs her last show, ending her twenty five year run of The Oprah Winfrey Show

Watch the video: The Largest Anti-Bolshevik Uprising Of The Russian Civil War I THE GREAT WAR 1921 (January 2022).