Siege of Mequinenza, 15 May-18 June 1810
The siege of Mequinenza of 15 May-18 June 1810 saw the French capture the strategically important town, at the highest navigable point on the Ebro. The small town of Mequinenza is located at the junction of the Ebro and the Siegre. The town itself was built by the river and was protected by a weak wall, but it had a strong castle, built 500 feet above the river at the end of a spur of the Sierra de Montenegra. The castle was not integrated into the defences of the town, but unless the French could capture both they would be unable to use the Ebro. The town was defended by 1,000 men under Colonel Carbon.
The siege was conducted by Marshal Suchet’s Army of Aragon. On 14 May Suchet had taken the surrender of Lerida, after a month long siege, and on the following day had sent the first troops south to Mequinenza. His engineers soon realised that the only way to attack the castle would be to build a new road onto the top of the Sierra de Montenegra. This five mile long road was complete by 1 June. On 5 June the French successfully stormed the town, leaving Carbon isolated in the castle.
Although the road onto the Sierra de Montenegra had been completed on 1 June, it would seem to have taken another ten days to build three gun batteries on the heights and to bring guns into place. The bombardment is said to have lasted for eight days. By the end of that bombardment the walls facing the French trenches were in ruins, and with no prospect of successfully defending the castle, on 18 June Carbon surrendered.
Although the French had captured the town and castle, Carbon had made sure that nine of the eleven river boats in the town escaped. Despite this Suchet was able to use Mequinenza as his artillery depot during his preparations for the siege of Tortosa, before floating his heavy guns down the Ebro.
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Siege of Mequinenza, 15 May-18 June 1810 - History
When the Turks attacked Malta with an armada of nearly 200 ships and 40,000 soldiers in May of 1565, about 1,000 knights of St. John (later the Knights of Malta) from all over Christendom had already assembled to repel them. These men arrived at Malta with the full knowledge that many of them would never leave the island alive.
The following is taken from the excellent historical novel, Angels in Iron, and describes the happenings on May 18, 1565 when the Turkish fleet appeared off Malta:
Suleiman’s armada was spotted shortly after dawn. The galleys materialized on the hazy horizon fifteen miles east of Malta. A Knight in St. Elmo roused the garrison to action, crying: “There they are!” Within moments men crowded the east walls and squinted toward the ships.
Di Corso stared at the gigantic fleet, eyes wide. Heavenly Father! It’s a wonder the sea can hold them!
Captain De Guaras and Governor Broglia scrambled up the steps and gazed toward the armada, their faces grim.
“God help us,” Broglia sighed, then told De Guaras: “Fire a shot to warn Birgu.”
“A volley!” De Guaras cried to the batteries on the cavalier. “Three shots!”
Cannon roared and iron whistled over water. White foam pillared skyward as shot plowed the lazy sea. Birgu’s guns echoed the alarm.
Another volley thundered toward the distant Turks.
He and Broglia went back down the steps and disappeared into the governor’s chamber, flanked by three Knights Commanders.
“How far off?” Di Corso asked a scarred Spanish gunner.
“Time enough for the chapel, then.”
La Valette signed a document, blotted it. “Oliver?”
La Valette rolled and sealed the scroll, pressed the wax with his signet ring and offered the letter. “Take this.”
Starkey accepted the parchment.
“This is my quint,” La Valette said, referring to the twenty percent of his belongings a Knight could bequeath outside the Order.
“I see, my lord,” Starkey said, studying the sealed will.
La Valette rose from the chair and placed a white-plumed helmet on his head, saying, “Let us go to St. Angelo.”
As they left the room they heard warning shots from inland Mdina, and Gozo to the north, where the respective garrisons had guessed Mustapha’s arrival.
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In the dockyard between Birgu and Senglea, Mathurin d’Aux Lescout-Romegas, General of the Galleys and the greatest Christian seaman of the age, readied four small ships. Romegas had no intention of engaging the huge Turkish force rather, he would reconnoiter Suleiman’s navy.
La Valette saluted Romegas and proceeded toward St. Angelo.
Drums, trumpets and shouts rose from Birgu and St. Angelo as men sprang hastily to arms. La Valette strode confidently into the chaotic fort. A group of knights surrounded him.
“The time is at hand,” he told them. “Let us acquit ourselves as knights of Christ.”
Thus begins the story of the epic battle, one of the most harrowing and bloody sieges in all of recorded history. To read the tale in the epic prose of Nicholas C. Prata, go ye and purchase a copy of Angels in Iron here or here.
Many fishing guides operate in this area using boats due to the large expanse of water created by the building of an artificial dam, the Mequinenza Reservoir.
A little further downriver are the towns and villages of Flix, Asco and Vinebre, where exceptional fishing can be enjoyed in more scenic surroundings.
The town is most well known amongst northern European fishermen for the large but elusive Wels catfish (Silurus glanis), which are found in the vast reservoir.
This area is now very heavily fished as a result and it seems that many fishermen are travelling further down river to the less frequented places to catch almost equally large fish. This is only if you don't know the river exceptionally well though.
Mequinenza's town wall was old and weak, but its castle perched on a mountain spur above the town was a formidable position. It took Suchet's military engineers two weeks to construct a zig-zag road up the mountain. Once the road was ready, the French dragged their siege cannons to the top and opened fire on the castle. The town was successfully stormed on 5 June. After eight days of bombardment the castle was a ruin and Carbon surrendered. Since Mequinenza was at the head of navigation on the Ebro, Suchet was able to use the town as a supply base in his subsequent operations during the siege of Tortosa in the winter of 1810 and 1811.
During the second siege of Zaragoza, its Spanish defenders bitterly resisted the French for many months. The city finally fell on 20 February 1809 and its large garrison was killed or captured. With most of Aragon's defenders wiped out, the French III Corps under General of Division Jean-Andoche Junot and V Corps under Marshal Édouard Mortier rapidly conquered the Ebro River valley. The powerful fortress of Jaca meekly surrendered to Mortier on 21 March 1809 and the towns of Monzón and Fraga were soon occupied. However, the castle of Mequinenza declined to surrender when summoned by a French column. After Mortier in person appeared before the castle with a brigade of infantry, its commander again refused to capitulate. The French marshal withdrew, planning to return after conquering the remainder of eastern Aragon. However, Emperor Napoleon issued orders on 5 April for the V Corps to withdraw to Tudela. The War of the Fifth Coalition was about to start and the emperor knew he might need Mortier's troops to reinforce his army in Germany. This left the III Corps to hold Aragon with only 15,000 troops. At the same time the emperor replaced Junot with General of Division Louis Gabriel Suchet. 
Allies surrender at Tobruk, Libya
On June 21, 1942, General Erwin Rommel turns his assault on the British-Allied garrison at Tobruk, Libya, into victory, as his panzer division occupies the North African port.
Britain had established control of Tobruk after routing the Italians in 1940. But the Germans attempted to win it back by reinforcing Italian troops with the Afrika Korps of Erwin Rommel, who continually charged the British Eighth Army in battles around Tobruk, finally forcing the Brits to retreat into Egypt. All that was left to take back the port was the garrison now manned by the South African Division, which also included the Eleventh Indian Brigade. With the use of artillery, dive-bombers, and his panzer forces, Rommel pushed past the Allies.
Unable to resist any longer, South African General Henrik Klopper ordered his officers to surrender early on the morning of the 21st. Rommel took more than 30,000 prisoners, 2,000 vehicles, 2,000 tons of fuel, and 5,000 tons of rations. Adolf Hitler awarded Rommel the field marshal’s baton as reward for his victory. “I am going on to Suez,” was Rommel’s promise.
Alors que le pouvoir politique aragonais chargé de la défense du pays s'organisait, les troupes de Palafox affrontaient leurs premiers envers. A partir du 8 juin , les milices de Tolède, de Mallén et d'Alagon endurent de sévères pertes, et ce jusque les 13 et 14 juin . Devant l'impossibilité de freiner l'avance française, Palafox se retira à Belchite. Saragosse était défendue par des rares troupes régulières et par des milices de volontaires sans expérience parmi lesquelles se trouvaient des compagnies entières envoyées depuis Mequinenza pour la défense de la ville. [ 1 ] Saragosse a pu résister les attaques française grâce la valeur et la ferme résistance des Aragonais ainsi que la confiance excessive des troupes françaises.
La première nouvelle au sujet de Mequinenza arrive le 5 juin lorsque le maire de Mequinenza écrit au Gouverneur d'Aragon en l'informant sur comment se doit réaliser l'enrôlement de miliciens décrété. Deux semaines plus tard, Pedro Navarro, gouverneur du Château de Mequinenza et de la ville, expédie un rapport à Palafox sur l'état de la place forte en indiquant qu'il s'y trouve sans canons, fusils ni poudre puisque tout a été embarqué vers Tortosa quelques ans aparavant. Ainsi, Navarro indique que huit garçons égarés après le choc avec les forces françaises près Saragosse ont rejoint la ville. Ils faisaient probablement partie d'une des compagnies formées par les Mequinenziens pour la défense de la capitale. À la fin du mois de janvier 1809, Francisco Palafox, frère du capitaine général d'Aragon, arrive en ville avec l'objectif de réorganiser diverses colonnes avec des renforts.
Malgré le fait que les premiers officiels français aient qualifié la place d' « inexpugnable » , le général Suchet, convaincu qu'une volonté forte serait la solution aux difficultés, ordonna au colonel Haxo d'ouvrir un chemin pour l'artillerie entre les roches. Les officiels français s'établirent en deux emplacements : au pied de la zone de Monegre, juste dessus de l'Èbre, en occupant un espace de « deux mille quatre cents pieds » et sur une petite colline proche au château [ 2 ] . De là, il menèrent à terme les travaux pour faire arriver l'artillerie au Château de Mequinenza.
La chute de Saragosse rendait possible l'avancée française sur l'Aragon et avait un de ses principaux objectifs à Mequinenza puisqu'elle était une voie d'accès à la Catalogne, la Méditerranéen et les Pyrénéens. Lorenzo Chauve de Frottes proposait l'envoi de canons et obusiers de campagne à Mequinenza pour fermer l'accès de la Catalogne aux français.
La première attaque sur Mequinenza a eu lieu en mars, après la prise de Fraga. Les défenseurs civils, sous le commandement du colonel Manuel Charbon, repoussèrent l'attaque. Après cette première tentative ratée, le grand commandement français a changé de stratégie en cherchant la reddition pacifique du château et de la ville avec une lettre destinée à Luis Veyan, gouverneur de la place forte de Mequinenza.
Luis Veyan y avait été remplacé par le capitaine général Blake en raison d'une erreur d'officiers ingénieurs qu'y trouvaient, et le récepteur de la lettre a été Juan Antonio Angulo. Il l'expédia à ses supérieures pour dénoncer la trahison de Domínguez et assurer la fidélité de la garnison et de la population de Mequinenza.
Ayant échoué dans cette tentative de prendre la place pacifiquement, les Français optèrent de nouveau pour la voie militaire. Dans le mois de mai de 1810, après la prise de Lleida, le général Suchet, au commandement du 3º Corps d'Armée, ordonna au général Musnier l'assaut de Mequinenza avec sa division. Le siège commenca le 19 mai et les jours suivants, ils s'unirent aux troupes de Musnier de la brigade de Mont-Marie, soutenues sur la rive droite de l'Èbre par les troupes du général Rogniat, qui renforça le siège avec des ingénieurs, sapeurs et mineurs.
Les attaquants comptaient quelques 5 000 hommes, quatre compagnies d'ingénieurs et deux d'artillerie avec 14 pièces. L'artillerie a dû être véhiculée à travers un chemin tracé par le colonel des ingénieurs Haxo, bâti par près deux mille civils et soldats. La défense espagnole de la place forte, aux mains du colonel Charbon, comptait au total 1 200 hommes.
Le 2 juin , les ingénieurs français avaient déjà commencé à creuser des tranchées et placé les pièces d'artillerie pour attaquer le château en même temps que l'infanterie prenait la ville d'assaur. La garnison espagnole abandonna la partie urbaine la nuit du 3 juin et se réfugia dans le château. La nuit du 4 au 5 juin , le deuxième bataillon du premier régiment de la Vistule, malgré des énormes blocs de pierre jetés depuis le château, éleva une tour carrée armée de deux pièces de 12 mm . La même nuit, la population de Mequinenza se rend avec huit canon, quatre cents fusils, quinze tonneaux de poudre et quatre barges. Le chef du bataillon polonais Chlusowitz et le capitaine des sapeurs Foucaud conduisent l'attaque.
Avec la ville prise, le général Suchet passe au siège du fort. La nuit du 7 au 8 juin , l'artillerie comandée par le chef de batallion Raffron, vient d'armer trois nouvelles batteries et le feu de seize pièces d'artillerie commence au lever du jour. Les défenseurs du général Charbon répondent avec vigueur en détruisant trois pièces, bien que le feu français continue d'entailler les défenses. Un pan du mur tombe enfin et les projectiles commencent à toucher le centre du fort. À l'attaque initiale, s'ajoutent les tireurs français, protégés par des parapets faits de sacs de terre.
Le 8 juin , à 10 heures du matin, la garnison espagnole, après avoir offert une grande résistance, bat en retraite et enfin hisse le drapeau blanc. La garnison obtient l'honneur de défiler devant la division du général Musnier et dépose ses armes face au glacis du Château de Mequinenza. Les troupes espagnoles en ce moment étaient formées de 500 soldats de provenances diverses (Navarro-aragonais, Catalans, Contrabandiers, miquelets et aventuriers) et d'un regimient commandé par un anglais du nom de Doyle qui affichait le rang de Commissaire Général d'Aragon. [ 2 ] . A l'intérieur du château de Mequinenza, les français ont trouvé cinq mortiers, quatre cent mille cartuches de fabrication anglaise, trente mille de poudre ainsi que des vivres pour trois mois.
La prise de la place de Mequinenza a été célébrée par les autorités françaises qui occupaient Saragosse. La mairie a organisé des fêtes les jours 16 et 17 juin pour le célébrer et a chargé à Manuel Isidro de Ased et Villagrasa de la rédaction d'un livre où raconter ces faits.
Après l'occupation, Mequinenza a été intégrée à un réseau de fortifications dans le Département des Bouches de l'Èbre pour soutenir et approvisionner les troupes françaises. À cela s'es ajouté la navigabilité de l'Èbre, le Segre et le Cinca pour véhiculer troupes, vivres et munitions vers Tortosa qui ont beaucoup de fois souffert d'attaques de guerrilla. La garnison du château de Mequinenza a varié selon les besoins de la guerre et a été composée de troupes de diverses nationalités qui formaient l'armée napoléonienne, du fruit des divers territoires européens sous son contrôle [ 3 ] .
À la suite du changement du cours de la guerre en 1813, la garnison française du général Paris reçoit le mandat d'abandonner la ville et se diriger à Mequinenza pour se réunir avec les troupes du général Suchet repliées vers la Catalogne depuis ses positions de Valence. Pourchassés par les troupes d'Espoz y Mina, le général français, desobéit à son mandat et se retira directement vers Jaca en abandonnant une grande partie de son artillerie. La libération de Saragosse eut lieu le jour même où Paris abandonnait la capitale. A Mequinenza, la garnison française était composée au mois de juillet 1813 de 433 hommes, 38 pièces d'artillerie, et vivres et fournitures pour huit mois sous le commandement du général Bourgeois. La Mequinenza française tenait garnison devant un possible changement dans la guerre qui rendrait possible un triomphe français.
Au niveau international, Napoléon souffrait à cause de la perte de la Hollande, des incursions britanniques en territoire français et du front prussien. La présence française dans la péninsule se réduisait à divers garnisons enfermées dans des villes et châteaux. Suchet résista au nord de la rivière Llobregat et les armées anglo-espagnoles se chargèrent rapidement de libérer les villes et les fortifications des garnisons françaises. Dans le cas de Mequinenza, la libération s'est réalisée à travers une stratégie sans livrer bataille. Malgré les tentatives du général Javier Elío qui sollicita la permission pour obtenir des renforts d'artillerie pour libérer le château de Mequinenza, le général Wellington refusa clairement sous le prétexte de qu'ils étaient plus nécessaire la prise de places fortes comme Peñíscola ou Sagunto qu'a la prise de Mequinenza.
La voie militaire ayant été écartée, la libération de Mequinenza se produisit grâce au baron de Eroles, Joaquín Ibáñez Cuevas, lieutenant colonel. Avec l'information fournie par l'officier Juan Van Halen (qui avait servi pendant un temps du côté français) concernant le système de chiffrement utilisé par le haut commandement français pour transmettre ses mandats, le baron de Eroles trama un plan pour convaincre les gouvernants français des places fortes de Tortosa, Lleida, Monzón, Sagunto, Peñíscola et Mequinenza de se rendre devant les forces espagnoles. En 1814, il expédia des faux mandats au général Bourgeois pour abandonner le château de Mequinenza. Le stratagème donna le résultat escompté et les troupes françaises ils évacuèrent le château dans la première quinzaine de février. Loin de Mequinenza, et entouré par des unités espagnoles, le général Bourgeois se vit obligé de rendre les armes.
La capitulation eut lieu près Martorell et a impliqué la livraison de toutes les armes de feu, munitions, poudre, canons et chevaux en permettant uniquement aux officiers de conserver leurs épées. Quelques soldats français de la garnison de Mequinenza ont été utilisés comme monnaie d'échange pour la libération de soldats espagnols prisonniers en France. Le 17 février , le drapeau espagnol flottait à nouveau sur le château de Mequinenza.
Pour les Français, l'importance de Mequinenza fut telle que le nom de la localité apparaît soulignée dans l'Arc de Triomphe de Paris, avec d'autres conquêtes de Napoléon comme Madrid, Plasencia ou Naples.
Pioneers of Mifflin County Pennsylvania
Mifflin County was formed in 1789 but as early as 1731 traders had left written records of the Shawnee Indian village of Ohesson, ruled over by Chief Kishacoquillas, firm friend of the English. Its site, since 1790, occupied by Lewistown, the county seat, remained an Indian centre until the coming of Arthur Buchanan, trader and first settler, in 1754.
The fertile soil of the Juniata and Kishacoquillas valleys soon attracted the venturesome Scotch-Trish, and when Fort Granville was built a mile west of Ohesson late in 1755 a dozen families were in the two valleys. August 1, 1756, Fort Granville was a pile of smoldering ruins and a force of French and Indians, under Chevalier de Villiers, on their way back to Kittanning and Fort Duquesne carried as captives the soldiers and settlers who had not been killed in the siege of the fort.
Soon the hardy Scotch-Irish came again and during the Revolution were a bulwark on the frontier against the inroads of the British-inspired Indians. "Mother Cumnberland" gave of her territory for the new county on September 19, 1789, the preamble of the act of erection, passed that day by the General Assembly, reciting that the "inhabitants . .. labour under great hardship by reason of their great distance from the present seat of justice and the public offices."
The new county was named for Thomas Mifflin, soldier of the Revolution and statesman of the constitution period, who was to become the first Governor of Pennsylvania as a State of the Union.
William Lewis, builder of Hope Furnace and on the early tax lists as an "Iron Merchant," was honored when the county seat was named Lewistown. It soon became the centre of trade, industry and population and has fittingly maintained leadership in manufacturing, particularly in the steel industry, having large plants for the making of locomotive parts, axes and edged goods. Today it is the largest Rayon manufacturing centre in Pennsylvania and has other textile plants.
Mifflin County ranks high in agriculture, particularly its famed Kishacoquillas Valley, home of the Amish and Mennonite farmers, picturesque in their plain garb, but thrifty, contented and God-fearing. The Kishacoquillas Valley vies with Lancaster County as "Pennsylvania's Garden Spot."
Scenically "Pennsylvania Has Everything," "Rocks and rills, woods andtempled hills"-and they'll be found in all their glory in Mifflin County. Bounded on the South-east by Shade and Blue mountains and on the North-west by Stone and the Seven Mountains and bisected by Jacks Mountain, Mifflin County has some of the most beautiful scenery to be found in the Alleghenies. Alexander Caverns, largest of Pennsylvania's caves, and Seawra Cave, a cavern of unusual beauty, are in Mifflin County. Her streams are an angler's paradise and her woods the "Happy Hunting Ground" of the nimrod.
Two hundred years ago, as now, Lewistown was a highway centre. Indian paths converged here from four directions. The "Juniata Path" led to the "Tuscarora Path" at Port Royal and in the other direction up the river to join the "Kittanning Trail" at Mount Union, while the "Warriors' Path" to Fort Augusta (Sunbury) and a trail into the Kishacoquillas Valley led East and West. Today U. S. Route 22 (William Penn Highway) and U. S. Routes 522 and 322 closely follow these wilderness trails as they pass through Lewistown.
A century ago Lewistown was a centre of trade as a shipping point of the Juniata Branch of the Pennsylvania Canal. But on the coming of the railroad in 1849 it came into its own as a transportation mart.
Today it is on the Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, midway between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Its altitude is 500 feet, its pbpulatioh 13,017, and that of the county 42,993. Today the historically minded are interested in the location of Logan's cabin near Reedsaille, home of the famed Mingo chief from 1766 to 1771 the site of Fort Granville, a model of which is to be seen in the Mifflin County Historical Society's museum the 125-year old Jacks Creek Arch Bridge, which has just recently been restored and is located in sight of Route 22 as it enters Lewistown from the South ruins of the Penna. Canal to be seen along the highway in scenic Lewistown Narrows home of Dr. J. T. Rothrock at McVeytown, where the "Father of Pennsylvania Forestry" spent his boyhood days and scores of old homesteads, some dating back to the, 1700's.
Mifflin County has a military history of note from the day Captain George Croghan began the construction of Fort Granville back in 1755 down to that Fall day of 1940 when its young manhood loyally stepped forward to register for the first peace time conscription in the Nation's history, and a year later, when on December 7, 1941. among the defenders of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, during Japan's surprise attack were several Mifflin County boys.
The sound of the tools of Captain Croghan's workmen had hardly died away before Fort Granville became the focal point for marauding bands of Indians, until finally late in July of 1756 Chevalier de Villiers led his force of French and Indians to the farthest eastern point attained by a French force and here laid siege to the fort. Gallant Lieutenant Edward Armstrong and his brave force of frontiersmen refused all demands to surrender until the commander was killed and the fort on fire. It was but a few days before Colonel John Armstrong, brother of the Lieutenant, was on his way with a large force to Kittanning, Indian village on the Allegheny, where he avenged the death of his brother and the destruction of Fort Granville by laying in waste the Indian town and killing Captain Jacobs, Indian leader in the Granville expedition.
Scarce had the settlers time to build their homes anew after the Indian wars of 1755 to 1763 before the Revolution was upon them. Although 150 miles from the nearest British regular, the Scotch-Irish on the frontier sent company after company to New Jersey and Eastern Pennsylvania during the early years of the War for Independence. But the time came when Col. Arthur Buchanan, in charge of Militia here, had to refuse a call, for the men were needed to defend their homes. The Indians seeking scalps for British bounties were making forays from the West and North against the frontier settlements.
It was in 1778 that Col. Buchanan wrote to the Colonial authorities: "The Indians continue to murder men, women and children on our frontiers . . . We are in a very distressed situation at present . . . I have taken the sentiment of our battalion and they are these, if the lieutenants of the county will send us the assistance of a few men with arms and ammunition we will march immediately into the Indian country and attack their towns, which will be the most effective method of calling them from our frontiers . . . I sent six men as spies to the Kittanning only one of whom returned, who says they were fired upon by 100 Indians and only he escaped Sir please send . . . a supply of ammunition and arms."
But finally peace came-with victory-as it would to a people with such a spirit-and a new county was founded and named Mifflin, for a soldier with an enviable record during the Revolution.
Then came the War of 1812 and Captain Milliken's Troop of Horse went to Buffalo among the first, for had it not been a native of Mifflin County, Captain Daniel Dobbins, then of Erie, who had journeyed to Washington to persuade President Madison and his Cabinet to defend the Great Lakes against the British, then returned to Lake Erie where he built the "Niagara," Commodore Perry's flagship.
Three decades of peace saw many important developments along the Juniata, but when war was declared by Congress against Mexico, again Mifflin County men were ready. Captain William H. Irvin with his First Lieutenant, Thomas F. McCoy, led their "Juniata Guards" aboard a canal boat March 25, 1847, for the trip to Mexico, via Pittsburgh. From the arrival in Mexico until the close of the war they were in every important engagement. . The "Wayne Guards," another Mifflin County company, had followed the "Juniata Guards" to. Mexico and they too participated in many important battles.
When in 1861 President Lincoln called for troops the first company to reach the National Capital was the "Logan Guards" under Captain J. B. Selheimer. Company after company was raised in Mifflin County and saw service in almost every engagement from Bull Run to Appomattox. Among those who rose to high rank in the War of the Rebellion were General Thomas F. McCoy and General John P. Taylor.
In 1898 the men of Company G "Remembered the Maine" and in 1917 Company M. was followed to "Somewhere in France" by hundreds of Mifflin County lads. Among those serving in that conflict was a native son who was following the tradition of his illustrious father. Major General Frank R. McCoy has just recently retired from a brilliant career which started with Col. Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" in Cuba and carried him into every section of the globe on missions of peace and war. No greater tribute could be paid this community and its people than that he should wish to retire to his old home in the Juniata Valley. Such is the County of Mifflin and the Borough of Lewistown in the heart of the Juniata Valley of which it was once written:
|THE BLUE JUNIATA|
Wild roved an Indian girl,
Loose were her raven locks
In waving tresses flowing.
Gay was the mountain song
"Strong and true my arrows are
Swift goes my light canoe
Proud waves his snowy plume
Soft and low he speaks to me
And then his war-cry sounding,
Rings his voice in thunder loud
From height to height resounding."
Fleeting years have borne away
Still sweeps the river on-
By: Mrs. Marion Dix Sullivan
From: The Pioneers of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania Who's who in the Early Records with an Account of the Growth of the county before 1790, by John Martin Stroup and Raymond Martin Bell, Lewistown, Penna. 1942
Contributed by Tammy Clark
The first settlement along the Juniata River in Mifflin County was called the "Juniata Settlement." It was not until 1765 that a permanent settlement could be started. Those who had located earlier had been driven out by the Indian Wars. The Bratton, Buchanan, Carmichael, Galloway, Holliday, Holt, Jones and Means families were among the earliest settlers. The Carmichaels and Galloways lived in Wayne the Hollidays in Oliver the Brattons in Bratton the Joneses in Granville the Buchanans and Holts around Lewistown the Meanses in Derry Township.Township the Bells and Siglers in Decatur Township.
The Brattons were early settlers in Bratton and Wayne Townships. In 1790 there were eleven families, all probably related. The first Bratton to settle in Mifflin County was Andrew Bratton. In 1754 he went from Hamilton Township (now Franklin County) to what is now Bratton Township. Before that he had probably lived in Chester County, where the Brattons seem to have originated. Rev. Charles Beatty stopped at Andrew Bratton's when on his missionary tour in 1766 the first church in that section was erected on his land about 1776. Andrew Bratton married Nancy Holliday of Peters Township (now Franklin County). He died about 1780 leaving sons William (1745-1825) and John. William was Captain in the Revolution, later a squire. He married about 1776 Christiana Hamilton. John was never married. James Bratton, Sr., may havebeen a brother of Andrew. He migrated from Bethel Township (now Delaware County) to Mifflin County about 1772. He died in 1799, leaving wife, Rachel, and children, William, James, Jr., (1757-1844), went to Center Township, Guernsey County, Ohio Samuel (1762-1799), Sarah, Elizabeth. Another Bratton was George, Sr., who settled in Mifflin County about 1771. He died in 1797 leaving children, Elizabeth (James), Isabella (Stalford), Sarah (Barr), Jane (Weyburn), Edward, George (1757-1827), Rachel, Leah. James (little) Bratton settled about 1773. He died in 1786 leaving wife, Isabella, and children, Jane, William, Robert, George. Phoebe, Elizabeth. James (big) Bratton settled about 1779. He died in 1811 leaving wife. Elizabeth, and children John, William, Wallace, Sallie (Wallace), Lydia (Ewing), Elizabeth (Barron), Jane, Margaret. A William Bratton, Sr., assessed as early as 1776 had a son, William. A John Bratton was assessed 1769 to 1772, improved land in 1760. One of the noted descendants of the Mifflin County Brattons is Mrs. Henry Wallace, wife of the Vice-President of the United States.
The first settler at Lewistown was Arthur Buchanan who put up a cabin about 1754. He had come from Carlisle, where he was assessed in 1753, although the Buchanans originally came from Little Britain Township, Lancaster County. The French and Indian War forced Arthur Buchanan to return to Carlisle, where he died September 23. 1760. Arthur and Dorcas Holt Buchanan had four children. His widow returned to Lewistown in 1765 and was one of the pioneer women of Mifflin County. She died in Lewistown, January 20, 1804, aged 93 years and is buried in the old cemetery on South Brown Street. The children: 1. Arthur Buchanan Jr. born about 1740 married about 1773 Margery died 1811 at Lewistown, no issue. Arthur Jr. was colonel in the Revolution and one of the leading citizens in the early days of Miffin County. 2. William Buchanan, born 1742 married 1763 Margaret died December 22, 1767, at Lewistown. Children: a. Arthur Buchanan, born 1764, married Isabella died 1792. b. John Buchanan, born 1766 married Rebecca 3. Jane Buchanan, born about 1745 married Charles Magill. 4. Robert Buchanan, born June 21, 1749, died July 10, 1819, at Lewistown married 1774 Lucinda Landrum, born July 24, 1755. a. Andrew Landrum Buchanan, born August 16, 1775, died February 28, 1841, East Bradford, Pa. married February 26, 1801, Rebecca Jones. b. Jane Buchanan, born September 2, 1777. c. Arthur Buchanan, born September 23, 1779. d. William Buchanan, born January 11, 1782. e. Mary Buchanan, born October 12, 1785, died March 15, 1822 married - Skinner. f. Dorcas Buchanan, born December 24, 1787. g. Robert Buchanan, born on March 17, 1791, died March 1, 1826 married Mary Tannehill. h. James Buchanan, born on September 16, 1792. i. Thomas Buchanan, born on February 2, 1796.
There were three Carmichael brothers from Hamilton Township (now Franklin County) who settled in Wayne Township about 1760, John,. Daniel and James. John served in the Revolution. Daniel died while in the militia. James about 1777 moved to Dublin Township, Bedford County. John held a number of township offices. He married Isabella _____. In 1792 or 1793 he moved to Washington County, Tennessee, where he died in March, 1799. His children were: James, Mary (Moore), Margaret, Jane, George, Archibald, John, David, Daniel, William' and Elizabeth. Daniel Carmichael, married about 1765 Mary Eaton, daughter of James Eaton of Hamilton Township. November 10, 1777, he went to camp and while in the militia died for his country. He had six children: James, Duncan, Margaret, Abigail, Isabel and Mary.
George Galloway, a weaver, settled in Wayne Township about 1765. In 1750 the Pennsylvania authorities had driven him out of Juniata County for settling on land belonging to the Indians. He then settled at Conococheague, near Chambersburg, later moving to Wayne Township. He was a son of Samuel and Elizabeth Galloway. Elizabeth was killed by Indians near Chambersburg in 1755. According to James Galloway, son of George, the family moved from Lancaster County to Franklin County 1754, to York County 1755, to Loudon County, Virginia, 1757, to Franklin County 1760, to Mifflin County 1765. George Galloway married Rebecca Junkin. All of their sons served in the Revolution. The people forted at George Galloway's in 1781. He died in 1783. His children were: 1. Margaret Galloway, born June 12, 1742 married George Pomeroy. 2. William Galloway, born June 8, 1743, died September 28, 1795, in Kentucky married 1771 Catherine Thompson married 1777 Rebecca Mitchell. 3. Jane Galloway. born January 8, 1745 married William Junkin. 4. John Galloway, born October 17, 1746. 5. Samuel Galloway married Elizabeth Galloway. 6. James Galloway, born May 1, 1750, died August 6, 1838, Green County, Ohio married November 23, 1778, Rebecca Junkin. 7. Joseph Galloway, born January 8, 1757, died August 12, 1838. 8. Martha Galloway, married Lancelot Junkin. 9. Sarah Gailoway, married Joseph Wilson.
Samuel Holliday settled in Oliver Township (MeVeytown) in 1763.He came from Peters Township (now Franklin County). His father was John Holliday, who died in Peters Township in 1770. The children of John, Sr., were William, Samuel, John, Adam, Joseph, Mary, Frances, Nancy (Bratton). The Hollidays had lived in Lancaster County before going to the Conococheague Settlement (Peters Township). Samuel Holliday operated the first grist mill in Mifflin County he had a saw-mill in operation as early as 1766. In August 1766 Rev. Charles Beatty preached at Holliday's Mill. Holliday was a captain in the Revolution the people forted at his house in 1781. When Samuel Holliday died in December 1807 he left widow, Sarah, and children John, James, Adam, Michael, Samuel, Rebecca (Bratton), Jane (Provines).
Thomas Holt settled west of Lewistown about 1760. His farm included the Fort Granville site. On February 3, 1756, in St. James Church, Lancaster, he was married to Elizabeth Mitchell, daughter of John and Jane (Ross) Mitchell. They settled in Carlisle, where Holt was a brassfounder. He died near Lewistown in 1777 his widow died in 1798. They had nine children: 1. John Holt, born February 1, 1758, died at Snowshoe 1831 married August 8, 1779, Sarah Milliken. Ensign in the Revolution. 2. William Holt, may have gone to Kentucky lieutenant in Revolution. 3. Elizabeth Holt, married John Magee. 4. Thomas Holt, born 1761, served in Revolution, went to Ohio. 5. Mary Holt, married Jacob Yost. 6. Jane Holt, married John McClintock.7. Dorcas Holt, born March 23, 1772, died August 20, 1853 married 1790 James Stackpole. 8. Eleanor Holt, married Francis Windle. 9. James Holt, married Mary___.
A pioneer in Granville Township south of the Juniata River was Daniel Jones who bought land from Robert Jones in 1755. Daniel lived on this land the rest of his life, except the two times he was driven off by Indian wars. Daniel was born in 1726 and held a number of township offices in Derry Township. He died January 14, 1801, and was buried at Lewistown. About 1752 he married Jane . After her death he remarried, about 1765 Susannah____. His children: 1. Charles Jones, born 1753, died February 4, 1775. 2. William Jones, born 1755, died October 28, 1831 married Jane McCord. 3. Jane Jones, born about 1758, died young. 4. Edward Jones, born January 18, 1766. 5. Isaiah Jones, born October 27, 1768. 6. Daniel Jones Jr., born May 25, 1771, died 1846. 7. Ann Jones, born March 25, 1774, died January 27, 1775. 8. Ann Jones, born December 26, 1776 married McAlister. 9. Rebecca Jones, born June 20, 1779, died 1861 married Andrew Landrum Buchanan. 10. Sarah Jones, born August 26, 1782 married Lewis.
Robert Means Sr. settled in Derry Township about 1770. He was a son of John Means, who died in Buckingham Township, Buck s County, in 1739. John had six children: William (went to S. C.), Robert (see below), Alexander, Sara, Ann, Elizabeth. Ann Means married first William Sloan, second John Wasson. May 26, 1756, Ann was captured by the Indians and her second husband killed. She was released December 1, 1759. Robert Means Sr. married about 1743, Nancy Kelley of Bucks County. Her brother, Matthew Kelley settled about 1772 in Dry Valley. Robert Sr. died in Derry Township in the Spring of 1779. He had 10 children: 1. John Means, born 1744, lieutenant in Revolution. 2. Margaret Means, born 1748. 3. Robert Means Jr., born November 2. 1750, captain Revolution, died in Derry Township July 15, 1837 married May 13, 1791, Hannah McKee. Issue: George, Margaret (Corbet), William, Andrew, Robert Anderson, Nancy (McClure), Mary Ann, Eliza (Rothrock), Hannah (McFarlane). 4. James Means, born May 2, 1753, died July 3, 1828, at Seneca, New York, ensign in Revolution. 5. Jean Means, born 1755. 6. Joseph Means, born 1760, died young. 7. Mary Means, born 1763. 8. George Means, born 1764, private in Revolution. 9. Nancy Means, born 1766. 10. William Means, born 1769, died young.
From: The Pioneers of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania Who's who in the Early Records with an Account of the Growth of the county before 1790, by John Martin Stroup and Raymond Martin Bell, Lewistown, Penna. 1942 page 23-26
Contributed by Tammy Clark
In the early days Decatur Township was called "Jacks Valley." Among the early settlers in Decatur were the Bell and Sigler families. In May, 1773, George Bell settled on what is now Bell's Run at the foot of Jacks Mountain. His settlement is now known as Belltown. In 1775 George Sigler settled at the head of Long Meadow Run on a farm now owned by C. B. Dorman. The marriage of George Bell's grandson, John Henderson Bell, in 1810 to Mary Sigler, George Sigler's granddaughter brought these two families together.
George Bell was a son of William Bell of Paxton, Dauphin County. The Bells were Scotch-Irish in origin. William Bell settled at Paxton about 1738. He was a farmer and an elder in the Presbyterian Church. In 1778 he supplied the army at Valley Forge with two bushels of wheat and 24 bushels of forage. His six sons and two of his grandsons served in the Revolution. William Bell died October 29, 1783, and his sons all migrated west. John went first to Cumberland County and then to Washington County, Pennsylvania, where he died in 1810. George settled in Mifflin County (see below). William went to Erie where he became a judge. He died in 1813. Thomas died in Huntingdon County in 1814. Arthur settled first in Mifflin County, then Huntingdon County and finally Westfield, N. Y., where he died in 1834. Andrew died in Washington County in 1822. It was about 1765 that George B-l settled in Dry Valley, Derry Township. He held township offices in 1768 and 1769. In 1773 he moved to Jacks Valley and on May 6 improved the land on which he died 43 years later. This land is at Belltown, Decatur Township. In 1773 it was a part of Penn Township, Northumberland County. When Indian attacks in 1777 threatened Mifflin County, George Bell was one of eight captains chosen in the Fifth Battalion of Cumberland County militia. George Bell's company was in active service at Bald Eagle (Milesburg) April and May, 1778. About 1756 George Bell married Mary Bell of Paxton. They had five sons and five daughters.
John settled in Barree Township, Huntingdon County, where he died in 1833. There is no record of Jane except in her father's will. Mary and Sarah were never married. Arthur died in Dayton, Ohio, about 1850. The other sons and daughters lived in Mifflin County.
William Bell, born at Paxton about 1762, farmer in Decatur Township, married about 1790 Margaret McCartney of Juniata County, died September, 1827, leaving children: John Henderson, George, James, Sibella (Barr), William, Johnston, Margaret (Glass), Arthur. George Bell, born at Paxton about 1764, farmer in Decatur Township, married about 1789 Eleanor McClenahen, died about 1840, children: John, Mary (Carson), George, Eleanor (Scott), Elizabeth, James Johnston, William, Sarah (Ramsey), Charles McClenahen. James Bell, born about 1773, tailor in Decatur Township, married about 1795 Elizabeth Carson, died September 23, 1815, children: Catherine (Burdge), Mary (Hough), Margaret (Dorman), George Thompson, Jane (Stayner), John Davis. Elizabeth Bell, born about 1769, married February 1, 1791, Charles McClenahen (1760-1836), died in Decatur Township October 25, 1845. The McClenahen children were: Eleanor (Dorman), Sarah (Matthews), Elizabeth (Dorman), Mary (Glass), John. George Bell, Jane (Mitchell), William, Matilda (Bell). Margaret Bell, born about 1777, married about 1794 John McClenahen (1772-1830), died in Decatur Township February, 1850. The McClenahen children were: George Bell (died young), Elizabeth, John, William, James, Robert, Charles, George, Mary (McClenahen) Maxwell, Jane (Dorman), Andrew Clark, Harvey.
George Sigler Sr. was of German origin. He landed in Philadelphia September 25, 1751, and first settled in Manor Township, Lancaster County, where his oldest son, John, was born in 1753. Tradition says that George and Elizabeth Terrault were married on shipboard. Sometime before 1762 George Sigler moved to Alexandria Township, Hunterdon County, N. J., for here on February 17,1762, his son George Jr. was born. The Siglers attended German Reformed Church at Mount Pleasant, N. J., and the baptismal records of sons Jacob and Adam are given. In 1775 George Sigler Sr. settled in Decatur Township on land bought from a New Jersey land speculator who lived in Hunterdon County: In Pennsylvania the Siglers became Presbyterians. It was in May, 1782, that George Sigler Jr. was captured by Indians near his home and taken to Canada, where he was released a year later. The date is verified by the pension applications of James Glasgow, Robert Means and Frederick Baum. These men were among those who pursued the Indians which captured Sigler. After the capture of George Jr., troops were stationed at the home of George Sigler Sr. for several months. George Sigler Sr. died in March, 1790, leaving sons John, George, Henry, Jacob, Adam, Samuel and one daughter, Mary Elizabeth. The daughter married Henry Bunn and lived in Hunterdon County, N. J. There is no record of Jacob. The other sons all lived in Decatur Township. John Sigler, born February 17, 1753, in Lancaster County, served in the Revolution, married in 1785 Jane Osburn, died in Decatur Town- Elizabeth, Mary (Stumpff), Sarah (Riden), Nancy (Krepps), Samuel, Eleanor (Townsend), Catherine (Myers), Jacob went to Liberty Township, Putnam County, Ohio. George Sigler, born February 17, 1762, in New Jersey, served in the Revolution, captured by Indians May 1782, married 1791 Elizabeth Bunn of Hunterdon County, N. J., died in Decatur Township August 3, 1821, children: Mary (Bell), Jacob went to Oceola, Ohio, Elizabeth, George, Sarah (Rothrock). Henry Sigler born March 21, 1764, in New Jersey, married 1799 Ann Van Horn, died in Decatur Township May 25, 1838, children: Daniel went to Loudonville, Ohio, Elizabeth, George H., John, Henry, Jane, (Coder), Mary, Sarah (Kelley), Nancy (Foltz). Adam Sigler born June 3, 1768, in New Jersey, baptized October 16, 1768, married 1797 Jemina Van Horn, died in Decatur Township June 30, 1846, children: Ann, Elizabeth, Margaret (Stoneroad), George, Mary, John, Jacob V., Sarah (Young), Jemima (Muthersbaugh), Adam V. went to Lake City, Minn., Johnston, Isabella (Doak), Belinda (Aitkins). Samuel Sigler, born August 15, 1774, in New Jersey, married 1804 Mary Carson, died in Decatur Township July 15, 1850, children: William went to Nevada, Ohio, George W., John Carson, Elizabeth (Hopper), Caroline Ruth (Cubbison).
From: The Pioneers of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania Who's who in the Early Records with an Account of the Growth of the county before 1790, by John Martin Stroup and Raymond Martin Bell, Lewistown, Penna. 1942 page 26-28
Contributed by Tammy Clark
The first settlement in Kishacoquillas Valley was called the "Kishacoquillas Settlement." It was in the summer of 1766 that a permanent settlement was started. The Alexander, Brown, McDowell, McNitt, Reed and Taylor families were among the earliest settlers. A study of the records in Cumberland and Chester Counties shows that some of these early settlers were acquainted before they went to "Kishacoquillas." The Alexanders settled in Union Township the Browns, Reeds and Taylors in Brown the McDowells in Menno, and the McNitts in Armagh.
James Alexander settled in the valley in 1754, but was driven out twice by Indian wars. He was born in County Armagh, Ireland, in 1726 and came to America in 1736 with his parents, John and Margaret (Glasson) Alexander. They first settled in Nottingham Township, Chester County. James Alexander had brothers, Hugh of Perry County and John of Franklin County. A son of Hugh, John, settled in Little Valley in 1787. James Alexander served in the militia 1777-1779. He was a Presbyterian elder and served as constable 1771 and 1775. He was acquainted with Brown and Reed in Chester County and was a brother-in-law of John McDowell.
James Alexander married in 1762 Rosanna Reed, daughter of Robert Reed, who died in Middleton Township in 1772. She died in 1792. James Alexander died in Union Township in 1786 or 1787. He had 11 children: 1. Jane Alexander, born 1763, died October 17, 1841 married first Alexander Brown, married second David Semple. 2. Robert Alexander, born October, 1766, died August, 1843 married Elizabeth McClure. 3. Elizabeth Alexander, born 1768, died 1842 married John Wakefield. 4. John Alexander, born 1769, died September 16, 1820 married Ann Taylor. 5. James Alexander, born February 16, 1772, died April 17, 1847 married Jane Adams. 6. Hugh Alexander, born November, 1773, died May 22, 1843: married Christiana Baum. 7. Joseph Alexander, born 1775, died unmarried. 8. Rachel Alexander, born May 8, 1780, died November 12, 1833 married David Sample. 9. William Brown Alexander, born March 27, 1782, died March 30, 1862 married Nancy Davis. April 15, 1784 married John Taylor. 11. Reed Alexander, born 1786, died 1806 unmarried. There were some other Alexanders in Kishacoquillas Valley. James of Paxton, Dauphin County, settled at Alexander Caverns in 1754. He died in 1778, leaving wife, Elizabeth, and children John, James, Jonathan, Mary, Elizabeth, Martha. Other Alexanders were William, Captain Thomas and Francis.
William Brown and James Reed
William Brown and James Reed settled near James Alexander in 1755. They later moved to Reedsville. Tradition says they were half-brothers, but considerable research has failed to reveal anything except that William's mother, Mary Brown, was living in 1789. William had a brother, Alexander Brown, who married Jane Alexander. William was an early justice of the peace in Kishacoquillas Valley. He was assessed for a gristmill as early as 1775. He was prominent in the Revolution, serving as commissary. He was a leader in the community and became one of the first judges when Mifflin County was formed in 1789. He held various township offices. He probably came from New Castle County, Delaware, or Chester County, for about 1767 he married Mary Scott of Nottingham Township, Chester County. William Brown died Dec. 14. 1825, in his 88th year according to his tombstone at Reedsville. William and Mary (Scott) Brown had seven children. Mary Brown died May 19, 1815, in her 68th year. Their children were as follows: 1. Elizabeth Brown, born May 16, 1768, died November 18, 1815 married Rev. James Johnston. 2. Mary Brown, born June 17, 1770 married James Potter. 3. John Brown, born August 17, 1772, died October 12, 1845. at Limestone. N. C. 4. Martha Brown, born December 3, 1774 no record. 5. Nancy Brown, born September 19, 1777, died June 26, 1853 married John Norris. 6. William Brown, born September 19, 1780, died May 31, 1834 married Rachel _____ 7. Sarah Brown, born February16, 1783, died 1810 married William P. Maclay.
John McDowell settled in Menno Township about 1761. He was a son of John and Jean McDowell of Antrim Township (now Franklin County). John Sr. died in 1770 leaving sons, John, Thomas, Joseph and daughter Sarah (Hannah). John McDowell Jr. was born in 1734, served in the Revolution, held a number of township offices, married about 1769 Elizabeth Reed of Middleton Township (sister-in-law of James Alexander), died 1809. Elizabeth McDowell was born in 1747, died 1812. They had 13 children: 1. Polly McDowell, died young. 2. Robert McDowell, born January 18, 1771, died March 20, 1829 married Sarah McConkey. 3. William McDowell, born May 20, 1775, died 1851 married Ann Alexander. 4. James McDowell married Polly Allison. 5. John McDowell never married. 6. Elizabeth McDowell married Samuel McGlathery. 7. Jean McDowell, born 1789 married Henry Taylor.x8. Joseph McDowell married _____Swartzell. 9. Samuel McDowell married _____Moore. 10. Jonathan McDowell married Kezia Merriman. 11. Nancy McDowell never married. 12. Sally McDowell, died young. 13. Polly McDowell, died young.
The first McNitts to be assessed in Kishacoquillas Valley were Alexander and William in 1770, followed by John and Robert in 1772 and James in 1775. These five MeNitts were sons of Robert McNitt (also written McNut and McKnitt), who died in Lurgan Township (now Franklin County) about 1765. James went west or south about 1776. The other four McNitts served in the Revolution and lived in Armagh Township. Robert Sr. took up land in Armagh in 1755. Alexander McNitt, died 1793, married about 1771 Ann ____ their children were: Robert, born 1772, died 1797, married Jane Taylor Samuel, died 1844, married Elizabeth Brown Mary Catharine William, married Mary Brown. William McNitt, died 1812, married about 1770, probably no issue. John McNitt, born 1739, died January 20, 1822, married before 1772 Mary Brown their children were: Alexander Brown, died in 1843, married Nancy Sterrett Catharine, died 1859, never married John, no issue Robert, died in 1840, married Sarah Glasgow daughter married Alexander Wilson daughter married James Glasgow. Robert McNitt, born 1746, died in 1810, married before 1772 Sarah Scott their children were: James, born 1774, died 1850 William Elizabeth Mary Ann.
James Reed and William Brown have always had their names connected. They both made settlements at the same time. James Reed served in the Revolution and held a number of township offices. James Reed about 1762 married Jane Ogleby of Nottingham Township, Chester County. He died July 12, 1803 his wife died March 15, 1809. They' had 12 children as follows: 1. James Reed, born 1763, died on May 11, 1828 married Nancy Milroy. 2. William Reed married Abigail Kerr. 3. Sarah Reed married Henry Steely. 4. Polly Reed married John Thompson. 5. Thomas Reed married Margaret Van Houten. 6. Andrew Reed married Hannah Conklin. 7. John Reed, died young. S. Joseph Reed, born 1778, died 1805, unmarried. 9. Alexander Reed, died 1815 married Jane____ 10. John Reed, died 1824, unmarried. 11. Jean Reed, born 1784, died 1816, unmarried. 12. Abner Reed, born June 1, 1787, died October 19, 1855 married first, Rebecca Henry married, second, Rhoda McKinney Brown.
The first Taylors to be assessed in Kishacoquillas Valley were Henry and William in 1770, followed by Matthew in 1771 and John in 1775. A fifth brother Robert lived in Juniata County and later Erie. The father, Robert Taylor, died in 1760 on Swatara Creek, Derry Township, Dauphin County. His wife was Mary_____. His children were Henry, born 1733 Catherine, born in 1735 William, born 1737 Robert, born 1740 Matthew, born 1742 John, born 1746 (went to Augusta County, Virginia) Jane, born 1744 Elizabeth, born 1748 Ann, born 1750. Robert Sr. had improved land in the valley in 1754. Henry Taylor was the oldest of the three Taylor brothers who lived in Kishacoquillas Valley. He was born 1733, married. about 1769 Rhoda Williamson (daughter of Samuel Williamson, died Newton Township 1771), died November 22, 1813. His wife was born 1744, died August 3, 1826. Henry Taylor was a captain in the Revolution road supervisor of Armagh Township 1772. He had 10 children: Robert, married Margaret McCandless Samuel Williamson, born November 6, 1778, died 1862, married Elizabeth Davis Matthew, married Ellen McCulley Henry B., married Jane McDowell Joseph Alexander, born October, 1790, died October 8, 1860, married Hannah Beatty David, never married Mary, married John McKinney Ann, born April 18, 1774, died August 25, 1853, married John Alexander Jane, married first Robert McNitt second Crawford Kyle Rhoda, married - Cooper. William Taylor was born 1737, married about 1771 Esther___ , died 1781. He served in the Revolution and was overseer of the poor in Armagh Township in 1778. He had four children: Robert John, born February 18, 1778, died November 29, 1843, married Rosanna Alexander Jane Mary. Matthew Taylor was born 1742, married about 1770 Sarah Sample Mayes (born 1740, died January 31, 1819), died November 12, 1823. There were four children: Robert married Nancy Arnold John, born March 6, 1775, died 1843, married Elizabeth McManigal Henry, born 1778, died August 17, 1862, married first Ann McNitt, second Rosanna McFarlane, third Priscilla Turbett Sample.
From: The Pioneers of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania Who's who in the Early Records with an Account of the Growth of the county before 1790, by John Martin Stroup and Raymond Martin Bell, Lewistown, Penna. 1942 page 28-31
A Foremast Jack’s Account of Life on Blockade DutyThe Blockade of Toulon, 1810-14: Pellew's Action, 5 November 1813 by Thomas Luny
This letter is written by a William Nelson, who appears to be an ordinary seaman. The letter written phonetically and without punctuations gives a rare glimpse of conditions aboard ship. It would appear William Nelson’s ship was on station outside Toulon, the French Mediterranean naval port, and experiencing at least one action to relieve the long monotonous chore of blockade duty.
Bombay of Toloun August 1st 1810
I take the Liberty of writing these few lines to you hoping to find you in good health as it leaves me at preasant thank god for it, uncle I have rote two letters to my farther and has not had any answer from him which makes me think that he has left arnold (3) has the last letter he informed me of Mr. Hawksleys misfortune (4) but I hope that is all past and as Brisk as ever and he wrote to me respecting Lord Collingwoods action and I sent him 2 letters since and told im every particular of it it was on last September but our ship was not in it at all but in sight of them, but know this summer they are more bolder then ever they coms out side of there arbour and chase our ships of but 10 or 12 days ago our fleet was driven to the coast (?) and some of there ships came out and had taken one of our Brigs four of our 74’s man to how assistance and rundown among __?__ sail of the line and done a deal of damage to them and he never received a shot.
There is know in Toloune 14 sail of the line and 9 Friggats, and who have only 12 sail of the line and 2 or 3 friggats at the best of times our admiral Lord Collingwood (5) died on Board the Nile departing 98 (?) again home and Sir Samual Hood superceded him and since that Sir Charles Cotton (6) has know got the command up the Medetrannen whe do expect them out to run to some other port every day, our officers doe talk of peace very much here and whe do have us hopes that before next spring I shall get home again for whe have been 10 months out from England and has not had 18 days fresh provisions in that hole time and let me farther know that I do wish im to write as soon as pofsible and write back yourself and let me know all the news at home. Remember me to my Mother and to my Brothers and Sisters and to all enquiring friends and hoping before long I shall bee along with you all at home.
Remember me to Thomas Gadsby at Mansfield and tell my farther to remember me to William Kerk and Thomas Matlock at arnold and to all other enquiring friends and when whe come to england if whe get Liberty I will come home to se you and I hope you will have more pleasant on the 10 of this month then I shall for I shall have know rairties but our salt Beef ov 3 years old there one of my country men on Board from Mansfield and whe shall have a drop of wine together I have know more to say at presant but remaining yours till Death
rite as soon as pofsible and tell my farther to rite to
__?__ New Radford, Nottingham.
3. Arnold, now a suburb of Nottingham, was then a village three miles north of the city
4. Probably John Hawksley. In 1788, he long with a Robert Davison erected a large worsted mill at Arnold which eventually employed 1,000 people. The mill closed in 1809, partly due to the death of Davison, and heavy financial losses caused by the trade depression arising from the decrees of Napoleon ( ie. the Continental system) against British commerce, coupled with the price rises of supplies caused by the French war.
The mill’s apprentices were handed over to the recruiting Serjeant. Hawksley went on to open a new mill in Butcher Close, Nottingham on 5th February 1810.
5. Vice-Admiral Cuthert Collingwood 1750-1810. He assumed command of the Fleet at Trafalger after Nelson was killed, and wrote the battle’s dispatch. He commanded in the Mediterranean 1807-08, and supervised the blockade of Toulon 1808-10. He died at sea and was buried at St.Pauls, London.
6. Admiral Sir Charles Cotton 1753-1812. He commanded Naval units in the Tagus 1807-08, then in the Mediterranean 1810. His last appointment was the Channel Fleet in 1812.
William Nelson Letter, reference DD 798/16 Nottinghamshire Archivies.
Reproduced with the Kind permission of the Principal Archivist, Nottinghamshire Archivies.
Correspondence with Greenwich Maritime Museum.
Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars, D.Chandler.
The Immortal Memory, D. and S. Howarth.
History of Arnold, J.Russell and R.King, Nottingham 1913.
This article first appeared in ” Napoleonic Notes and Queries “, published by Partizan Press, 818 London Road, Leigh on Sea,Essex, SS9 3NH England.
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