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Peisander, d.394 BC

Peisander, d.394 BC

Peisander, d.394 BC

Peisander (d.394 BC) was the brother in law of King Agesilaus II of Sparta, and was defeated and killed at the naval battle of Cnidus, where Sparta's brief period of naval domination ended (Persian-Spartan War).

In 395 Agesilaus, who was already campaigning in Asia Minor, was given command of a fleet of 120 triremes. He decided to give command of this fleet to Peisander, who Xenophon described as a man of 'genuine ambition and of a vigorous spirit, but not sufficiently expert in the details of equipment to achieve a great naval success'. This was an acceptable arrangement while Agesilaus was campaigning in the same area, but Sparta was under increasing pressure back in Greece (Corinthian War), and the king was soon recalled home. This left Peisander to face a combination of Persia and a resurgent Athens.

The seeds of his defeat were sown when the Athenian admiral Conon and the Persian satrap Pharnabazus went to court and convinced Artaxerxes to construct a fleet. Peisander soon found himself facing this new fleet close to Rhodes, where the Spartans were probably attempting to regain control of the island. The two fleets ended up facing each other around Loryma, north of Rhodes. Peisander decided to move to Physcus, a move that took him past the enemy base. The Greeks and Persians moved out to intercept the Spartans.

According to Xenophon the allies deployed with the Greeks under Conon in front and the Phoenicians in a second row. Peisander was outnumbered, but still decided to attack. His fleet was arranged with the Spartans on the right and their allies on the left. As the battle began Peisander's allies deserted. The Spartans pressed on to attack the Greeks, but they were soon driven onto the shore. Peisander was killed fighting on his ship, after refusing to abandon ship even after it been beached. Sparta lost about two thirds of their fleet

When the news reaches Agesilaus he lied to his army, telling them that the navy has been victorious (although he did admit that Peisander had been killed). This helped keep Spartan morale high for the upcoming battle of Coronea (394), an indecisive Spartan victory.


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Alcibiades, (born c. 450 bce , Athens [Greece]—died 404, Phrygia [now in Turkey]), brilliant but unscrupulous Athenian politician and military commander who provoked the sharp political antagonisms at Athens that were the main causes of Athens’ defeat by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 bce ).

Well-born and wealthy, Alcibiades was only a small boy when his father—who was in command of the Athenian army—was killed in 447 or 446 bce , at Coronea, Boeotia. Alcibiades’ guardian, the statesman Pericles, a distant relation, was too preoccupied with political leadership to provide the guidance and affection that the boy needed. As he grew up, Alcibiades was strikingly handsome and keen witted, but he was extravagant, irresponsible, and self-centred as well. He was, however, impressed by the moral strength and the keen mind of the philosopher Socrates, who, in turn, was strongly attracted by Alcibiades’ beauty and intellectual promise. They served together at Potidaea (432) in the Chalcidice region, where Alcibiades was defended by Socrates when he was wounded, a debt that he repaid when he stayed to protect Socrates in the flight from the Battle of Delium (424), north of Athens. Yet before he was 30 he had abandoned the intellectual integrity that Socrates demanded, in favour of the rewards of the kind of politics that Socrates despised.

During the 420s Alcibiades was best known for his personal extravagance and his courage in battle, but he had also become a recognized speaker in the Ecclesia (assembly), and, as Athens moved toward peace, he hoped that the ties that had once existed between his family and Sparta would enable him to secure the credit for bringing peace to Athens. According to the historian Thucydides, who knew Alcibiades well and judged him dispassionately, it was the fact that the Spartans instead chose to negotiate through established political leaders that dictated Alcibiades’ subsequent choice of policies.

General for the first time in 420, he opposed the aristocratic leader Nicias, who had negotiated peace, and steered Athens into an anti-Spartan alliance with Argos, Elis, and Mantineia, three city-states of the Peloponnese. This alliance was defeated by Sparta at the Battle of Mantineia (418). Alcibiades, however, escaped ostracism, a form of banishment, by joining forces with Nicias against Hyperbolus, the successor of the demagogue politician Cleon as champion of the common people. In 416 Alcibiades restored his reputation by entering seven chariots at Olympia and taking first, second, and fourth places. This made it easier for him, in 415, to persuade the Athenians to send a major military expedition to Sicily against the city of Syracuse. He was appointed to share the command, but, shortly before the expedition was due to sail, the hermae (busts of Hermes, messenger of Zeus and patron of all who use the roads, set up in public places throughout the city) were found to have been mutilated. In the ensuing panic Alcibiades was accused of being the originator of the sacrilege as well as of having profaned the Eleusinian Mysteries. He demanded an immediate inquiry, but his enemies, led by Androcles (the successor of Hyperbolus), ensured that he sailed with the charge still hanging over him. Shortly after reaching Sicily, he was recalled, but on the journey home he escaped and, learning that he had been condemned in absentia to death, went to Sparta. There he advised the Spartans to send a general to help the Syracusans and also to fortify Decelea in Attica, two serious blows to Athens. He also confirmed his reputation with women (which the rich Athenian whom he had married appreciated only too well) by seducing the wife of the Spartan king Agis II, who was at Decelea with his army.

In 412 Alcibiades helped stir up revolt among Athenian allies in Ionia, on the west coast of Asia Minor, but Sparta now turned against him, and he moved to Sardis to exercise his charm on the Persian governor. When some Athenian officers in the fleet began to plan an oligarchic coup, he held out hopes that if the democracy was overthrown he could secure financial support from Persia. In this he failed and, discarded by the oligarchs who had seized power, he was recalled by the Athenian fleet, which remained loyal to the democracy and needed his abilities. From 411 to 408 he helped Athens to a spectacular recovery, defeating the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont at Abydos (411) and Cyzicus (410) and regaining control over the vital grain route from the Black Sea. These successes encouraged him to return in 407 to Athens, where he was welcomed with enthusiasm and given supreme control of the conduct of the war. In a typically bold gesture he led the procession to the Eleusinian festival by road in spite of the danger from the Spartan force at Decelea, but, in the same year, after a minor naval defeat in his absence, his political enemies persuaded the people to reject him, and he retired to a castle in Thrace. He remained, however, a disturbing influence on Athenian politics and destroyed any hopes of a political consensus. When the Athenians at Aegospotami (405) facing the Spartans in the Hellespont grew increasingly careless, he warned them of their danger. But he was ignored, and, when the Athenians lost their whole fleet in a surprise attack by the Spartan admiral Lysander, Alcibiades was no longer safe in his Thracian castle. He took refuge in Phrygia in northwestern Asia Minor with the Persian governor, who was induced by the Spartans to have him murdered.

Perhaps the most gifted Athenian of his generation, Alcibiades possessed great charm and brilliant political and military abilities but was absolutely unscrupulous. His advice, whether to Athens or Sparta, oligarchs or democrats, was dictated by selfish motives, and the Athenians could never trust him enough to take advantage of his talents. Moreover, the radical leader Cleon and his successors carried on a bitter feud with him, which at the critical period undermined Athenian confidence. Alcibiades could not practice his master’s virtues, and his example of undisciplined and restless ambition strengthened the charge brought against Socrates in 399 of corrupting the youth of Athens.

Ancient Greek coins

Aigina, silver drachm. Land tortoise / Incuse, Α Ι Γ and dolphin in angles.

Corinthia Edit

Corinth: stater. Pegasos flying l./ Head of Athena l.

Peloponnesus Edit

Colonies in Asia Minor(Ionia) Edit

Greek coin from Ionia, Klazomenai 499 BC

Colonies in the Black sea Edit

Olbia. late 5th Century BC

Colonies in Thrace Edit

Colonies in Illyria Edit

Dyrrachium - Drachma: Magistrates: ΚΤΗΤΟΣ & ΦΑ ΝΙΣ ΚΟΥ

Apollonia - Drachma - Magistrates: Aibatios / Carhnos

Ebusus (Ibiza). Circa 210-early 2nd Century BC. Æ

Tetradrachme Mazedonien Alexander d. Gr. (336-325 v. Chr.) mit dem Löwenfell

Baktria Edit

O// helmeted Eukratides r. R// ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ The Dioscuri on horseback, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ in ex

O// Diademed bust of Plato r. R//: Helios, riding a quadriga. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΠΛΑΤΩΝΟΣ

Seleucia Edit

Seleucus I (Nicator), B.C. 312-280, the founder of the dynasty.

Antiochus I Soter. (co-ruler from 291, ruled 281–261 BC)
Silver. O// Head of Antiochus I. R//ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ Apollo, naked, seated on omphalos, holding arrows ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (see: en:Antiochus I Soter)

O// Head of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. (175–164 BC)
R// ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ Zeus Nikephoros enthroned, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (see: en:Antiochus IV Epiphanes)

Alexander I Balas (154–145 BC)
/ on reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ. 150 – 149 BC. (see: en:Alexander I Balas)

Battle of Cnidus

It was a military operation conducted in 394 BC by the Achaemenid Empire against the Spartan naval fleet during the Corinthian War. A fleet under the joint command of Pharnabazus and former Athenian admiral, Conon, destroyed the Spartan fleet led by the inexperienced Peisander, ending Sparta's brief bid for naval supremacy.

The Spartan fleet was based at Cnidus, at the western tip of the Carian Chersonese. Conon and Pharnabazus had their fleet at Loryma, at the southern tip of the Rhodian Chersonese, further east along the coast of Asia Minor, so the two fleets were facing each other across the gulf between the two peninsulas.

The fighting began with a clash between Conon's squadron of the Persian fleet and Peisander's fleet. The battle turned when the Phoenician fleet under Pharnabazus entered the fighting. Sparta's allies, on the left of the fleet, fled to land, leaving the Spartans to fight on alone. The fleet of Sparta and her allies under Peisander later was destroyed by the fleet under Conon and Pharnabazos.

In the battle of Cnidus, the Spartan fleet was decisively defeated Peisander's first battle with the fleet would be his last. Various sources attest that this was such a crushing blow that the days of Sparta's naval power were over that followed the end of the Great Peloponnesian War. At the end of the war Athens had been eliminated as a naval power.

After the battle, Conon and his Persian patron Pharnabazus put to sea again to induce the subject cities to secede. The Spartan garrisons were expelled Conon and Pharnabazus were welcomed as saviors and liberators everywhere they landed.12 Upon his return to Athens, Conon received the extraordinary honor of a statue in the agora.
Battle of Cnidus

Xenophon of Athens

Xenophon of Athens, said to have lived about RomBC430 to 354, was a soldier and historian. He is known for his writings on the history of his own times, the 4th century BC, preserving the sayings of Socrates, and the life of ancient Greece. His "Hellenica" is a major primary source for events in Greece from RomBC411 to 362. (About year count and notation read explanation here, opens in new tab.)

Xenophon was later exiled from Athens, most likely because he fought under the Spartan king Agesilaus II against Athens at Coronea during the Corinthian War (Wikipedia).

Therefore it might be an eyewitness report when he writes in his "Hellenica" (ref.1):

Next day he crossed the mountains of Achaea Phthiotis, and for the future continued his march through friendly territory until he reached the confines of Boeotia. Here, at the entrance of that territory, the sun seemed to appear in a crescent shape, and the news reached him of the defeat of the Lacedaemonians in a naval engagement, and the death of the admiral Peisander.

The same event is also reported by Plutarch in his "Life of Agesilaus" (ref.2):

Agesilaus now marched through the pass of Thermopylae, traversed Phocis, which was friendly to Sparta, entered Boeotia, and encamped near Chaeroneia. Here a partial eclipse of the sun occurred, and at the same time news came to him of the death of Peisander, who was defeated in a naval battle off Cnidus by Pharnabazus and Conon.

The solar eclipse appeared directly before the battle at Coronea. Spartan king Agesilaus II had been in Asia Minor to assist Greek settlements against the Persians. Early in springtime, he was organizing troops in the vicinity of Thebe for a campaign to the Asia Minor inland, when he was recalled to Greece for a war between Sparta and Athens with allied. He left part of the troops with a governor in Asia Minor, and rapidly marched with the rest via the Hellespont, Trace, Macedonia and Thessaly towards Boeotia. Underway he got both good and bad news about already ongoing acts of war. The year of the battle at Coronea is given as the second year of the 96th Olympiad, and thus RomBC395/4 (-394/3) in our chronology.

What are we looking for?
We are looking for an observable partial solar eclipse (magnitude >0.5) in the late afternoon and visible at Chaeroneia. In the late afternoon, because the reports say that it was visible when the troops were already encamped after a long day's march.

Stephenson considers the annular solar eclipse of -393 August 14 as a candidate (ref.4). That eclipse had the magnitude 0.91 at Chaeroneia, but it was a morning event and it was over before noon. The discrepancy regarding the time of observation is noted by Stephenson: "Although the Sun would be high in the sky at the time, Agesilaus would be marching in a south-easterly direction, facing into the Sun, so that the eclipse would be more easily noticeable."

But there is actually another objection against this eclipse: it happened in August. Did it really take about six months to march the about 1000 kilometers from Thebe to Chaeroneia? Remember that Agesilaus had not yet begun his campaign against the Persians when he was required to set off for Greece ("the season verged on spring", ref.1). Paul Cartledge (ref.5) mentions that an army with infantry and impedimenta would have needed three months to move about 3000 kilometers at the time of Alexander the Great. About 500 kilometers could be covered in twelve days if forced march was required.

Within the period -500 to -100 there are 17 partial solar eclipse in the late afternoon visible at Chaeroneia (ref.3). If we redate the second year of the 96th Olympiad according to our hypothesis 232 years towards our time, we arrive at -162/1. Among our 17 candidates we then find the solar eclipse of -162 March 15. The magnitude was 0.76 and it started at about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, with the maximum one hour later when the Sun was five degrees above the horizon. The crescent shape must have been clearly observable with the naked eye.

If we are right, this seems to have been a "real" eclipse immediately before a determining battle. Agesilaus was aware that this portent together with the news about the defeat of the Spartan fleet would lower his troops' will to fight and therefore suppressed the news. Maybe the eclipse was a "model" for the later Roman custom to garnish important accidents with portents like eclipses, volcano eruptions, earthquakes or all together at the same time?

Later events (393 BC to 388 BC) [ edit | edit source ]

The events of 394 BC left the Spartans with the upper hand on land, but weak at sea. The coalition states had been unable to defeat the Spartan phalanx in the field, but had kept their alliance strong and prevented the Spartans from moving at will through central Greece. The Spartans would continue to attempt, over the next several years, to knock either Corinth or Argos out of the war the anti-Spartan allies, meanwhile, sought to preserve their united front against Sparta, while Athens and Thebes took advantage of Sparta's preoccupation to enhance their own power in areas they had traditionally dominated.

Persian assistance, rebuilding at Athens, civil strife at Corinth [ edit | edit source ]

In 393 BC, Conon and Pharnabazus sailed to mainland Greece, where they raided the coast of Laconia and seized the island of Cythera, where they left a garrison and an Athenian governor. They then sailed to Corinth, where they distributed money and urged the members of the council to show the Persian king that they were trustworthy. Pharnabazus then dispatched Conon with substantial funds and a large part of the fleet to Attica, where he joined in the rebuilding of the long walls from Athens to Piraeus, a project that had been initiated by Thrasybulus in 394 BC. With the assistance of the rowers of the fleet, and the workers paid for by the Persian money, the construction was soon completed. ⎠] Athens quickly took advantage of its possession of walls and a fleet to seize the islands of Scyros, Imbros, and Lemnos, on which it established cleruchies (citizen colonies). ⎡]

At about this time, civil strife broke out in Corinth between the democratic party and the oligarchic party. The democrats, supported by the Argives, launched an attack on their opponents, and the oligarchs were driven from the city. These exiles went to the Spartans, based at this time at Sicyon, for support, while the Athenians and Boeotians came up to support the democrats. In a night attack, the Spartans and exiles succeeded in seizing Lechaeum, Corinth's port on the Gulf of Corinth, and defeated the army that came out to challenge them the next day. The anti-Spartan allies then attempted to invest Lechaeum, but the Spartans launched an attack and drove them off. ⎢]

Peace conferences break down [ edit | edit source ]

In 392 BC, the Spartans dispatched an ambassador, Antalcidas, to the satrap Tiribazus, hoping to turn the Persians against the allies by informing them of Conon's use of the Persian fleet to begin rebuilding the Athenian empire. The Athenians learned of this, and sent Conon and several others to present their case to the Persians they also notified their allies, and Argos, Corinth, and Thebes dispatched embassies to Tiribazus. At the conference that resulted, the Spartans proposed a peace based on the independence of all states this was rejected by the allies, as Athens wished to hold the gains it had made in the Aegean, Thebes wished to keep its control over the Boeotian league, and Argos already had designs on assimilating Corinth into its state. The conference thus failed, but Tiribazus, alarmed by Conon's actions, arrested him, and secretly provided the Spartans with money to equip a fleet. ⎣] Although Conon quickly escaped, he died soon afterward. ⎡] A second peace conference was held at Sparta in the same year, but the proposals made there were again rejected by the allies, both because of the implications of the autonomy principle and because the Athenians were outraged that the terms proposed would have involved abandoning the Ionian Greeks to Persia. ⎤]

In the wake of the unsuccessful conference in Persia, Tiribazus returned to Susa to report on events, and a new general, Struthas, was sent out to take command. Struthas pursued an anti-Spartan policy, prompting the Spartans to order their commander in the region, Thibron, to attack him. Thibron successfully ravaged Persian territory for a time, but was killed along with a number of his men when Struthas ambushed one of his poorly organized raiding parties. ⎥] Thibron was later replaced by Diphridas, who raided more successfully, securing a number of small successes and even capturing Struthas's son-in-law, but never achieved any dramatic results. ⎦]

Lechaeum and the seizure of Corinth [ edit | edit source ]

Corinth and the surrounding territory.

At Corinth, the democratic party continued to hold the city proper, while the exiles and their Spartan supporters held Lechaeum, from where they raided the Corinthian countryside. In 391 BC, Agesilaus campaigned in the area, successfully seizing several fortified points, along with a large amount of prisoners and booty. While Agesilaus was in camp preparing to sell off his spoils, the Athenian general Iphicrates, with a force composed almost entirely of light troops and peltasts (javelin throwers), won a decisive victory against the Spartan regiment that had been stationed at Lechaeum in the Battle of Lechaeum. During the battle, Iphicrates took advantage of the Spartans' lack of peltasts to repeatedly harass the regiment with hit-and-run attacks, wearing the Spartans down until they broke and ran, at which point a number of them were slaughtered. Agesilaus returned home shortly after these events, but Iphicrates continued to campaign around Corinth, recapturing many of the strong points which the Spartans had previously taken, although he was unable to retake Lechaeum. ⎧] He also campaigned against Phlius and Arcadia, decisively defeating the Phliasians and plundering the territory of the Arcadians when they refused to engage his troops. ⎨]

After this victory, an Argive army came to Corinth, and, seizing the acropolis, effected the merger of Argos and Corinth. ⎩] The border stones between Argos and Corinth were torn down, and the citizen bodies of the two cities were merged. ⎧]

Later land campaigns [ edit | edit source ]

After Iphicrates's victories near Corinth, no more major land campaigns were conducted in that region. Campaigning continued in the Peloponnese and the northwest. Agesilaus had campaigned successfully in Argive territory in 391 BC, ⎪] and he launched two more major expeditions before the end of the war. In the first of these, in 389 BC, a Spartan expeditionary force crossed the Gulf of Corinth to attack Acarnania, an ally of the anti-Spartan coalition. After initial difficulties in coming to grips with the Acarnanians, who kept to the mountains and avoided engaging him directly, Agesilaus was eventually able to draw them into a pitched battle, in which the Acarnanians were routed and lost a number of men. He then sailed home across the Gulf. ⎫] The next year, the Acarnanians made peace with the Spartans to avoid further invasions. ⎬]

In 388 BC, Agesipolis led a Spartan army against Argos. Since no Argive army challenged him, he plundered the countryside for a time, and then, after receiving several unfavorable omens, returned home. ⎭]

Later campaigns in the Aegean [ edit | edit source ]

After their defeat at Cnidus, the Spartans began to rebuild a fleet, and, in fighting with Corinth, had regained control of the Gulf of Corinth by 392 BC. ⎮] Following the failure of the peace conferences of 392 BC, the Spartans sent a small fleet, under the commander Ecdicus, to the Aegean with orders to assist oligarchs exiled from Rhodes. Ecdicus arrived at Rhodes to find the democrats fully in control, and in possession of more ships than him, and thus waited at Cnidus. The Spartans then dispatched their fleet from the Gulf of Corinth, under Teleutias, to assist. After picking up more ships at Samos, Teleutias took command at Cnidus and commenced operations against Rhodes. ⎯]

Alarmed by this Spartan naval resurgence, the Athenians sent out a fleet of 40 triremes under Thrasybulus. He, judging that he could accomplish more by campaigning where the Spartan fleet was not than by challenging it directly, sailed to the Hellespont. Once there, he won over several major states to the Athenian side and placed a duty on ships sailing past Byzantium, restoring a source of revenue that the Athenians had relied on in the late Peloponnesian War. He then sailed to Lesbos, where, with the support of the Mytileneans, he defeated the Spartan forces on the island and won over a number of cities. While still on Lesbos, however, Thrasybulus was killed by raiders from the city of Aspendus. ⎰]

After this, the Spartans sent out a new commander, Anaxibius, to Abydos. For a time, he enjoyed a number of successes against Pharnabazus, and seized a number of Athenian merchant ships. Worried that Thrasybulus's accomplishments were being undermined, the Athenians sent Iphicrates to the region to confront Anaxibius. For a time, the two forces merely raided each other's territory, but eventually Iphicrates succeeded in guessing where Anaxibius would bring his troops on a return march from a campaign against Antandrus, and ambushed the Spartan force. When Anaxibius and his men, who were strung out in the line of march, had entered the rough, mountainous terrain in which Iphicrates and his men were waiting, the Athenians emerged and ambushed them, killing Anaxibius and many others. ⎱]

Aegina and Piraeus [ edit | edit source ]

In 389 BC, the Athenians attacked the island of Aegina, off the coast of Attica. The Spartans soon drove off the Athenian fleet, but the Athenians continued their land assault. Under Antalcidas' command, the Spartan fleet sailed east to Rhodes but it was eventually blockaded at Abydos by the regional Athenian commanders. The Athenians on Aegina, meanwhile, soon found themselves under attack, and withdrew after several months. ⎲]

Shortly thereafter, the Spartan fleet under Gorgopas ambushed the Athenian fleet near Athens, capturing several ships. The Athenians responded with an ambush of their own Chabrias, on his way to Cyprus, landed his troops on Aegina and laid an ambush for the Aeginetans and their Spartan allies, killing a number of them including Gorgopas. ⎳]

The Spartans then sent Teleutias to Aegina to command the fleet there. Noticing that the Athenians had relaxed their guard after Chabrias's victory, he launched a raid on Piraeus, seizing numerous merchant ships. ⎴]

Rhode's ancient and medieval monuments tell the story of an island prized by all.

Rhodes is one of the most enchanting Greek destinations that visitors today can select. On this singular island, one comes face to face with Greece’s more recent past, where the most appropriate start to every “story” told by a medieval tower, a soaring minaret, a crenellated wall or an arched gateway marked with a heraldic emblem seems to be “Once upon a time in Rhodes…” Not every architectural or archaeological trace reveals a perfect, fairytale existence, but these contrasts make our understanding even more realistic.

All around are signs of the Rhodians’ struggles with war, their need for constant vigilance and the relentless passage of time. Simultaneously, strength, prosperity, elegant foreign influence and far-reaching Rhodian authority are also evident.

This is a strategically located, resource-rich island whose landscape and urban architecture remain criss-crossed with the vestiges of multiple cultures – from trade-bent Minoans and Mycenaeans in the Bronze Age, through despotic Persians in the Classical era, to the covetous empires of the Romans, Byzantines, Crusaders, Ottomans and even modern-day, pre-WWII Italians.

Rhodes was not always subject to outside powers, however: after freeing itself from the grip of Athens, which had dominated the Aegean in the 5th c. BC, and prior to the encroachment of the Romans, Rhodes reached an extraordinary zenith during Hellenistic times (4th-2nd c. BC). It became an autonomous maritime giant that essentially ruled the seas in the Eastern Mediterranean through its enormous fleet of merchant ships and widely respected code of maritime laws.

Relief of a “triimiolia,” a symbol of Rhodian naval power, carved in 180 BC by the famous sculptor Pythokritos into a rock face at the base of the acropolis of Lindos. The triimiolia was a typical type ofRhodian warship of the era, which combined the qualities of a trireme with a schooner (hemiolia)

Relief of a “triimiolia,” a symbol of Rhodian naval power, carved in 180 BC by the famous sculptor Pythokritos into a rock face at the base of the acropolis of Lindos. The triimiolia was a typical type ofRhodian warship of the era, which combined the qualities of a trireme with a schooner (hemiolia)

Early Seafaring

Everywhere one looks, whether at the fortified port of Rhodes Town or among the age-old settlements, castles and watchtowers that ring the coasts, Rhodes’ timeless relationship with the sea is clear.

Naturally, as an island, Rhodes was first occupied by seafarers: Neolithic travelers of the 6th millennium BC, who brought with them, or acquired locally through seaborne trade, volcanic obsidian and other foreign goods from neighboring islands or mainland areas both near and far. Typical of Rhodes’ Stone-Age sites are the rock shelters of the northeastern Kalythies region, including Erimokastro Cave, where archaeologists uncovered the fossilized bones of dwarf elephants.

Aghios Georgios Cave (5300 BC-4000/3700 BC) contained bone or chipped-stone tools and stone grinders used for harvesting and processing cereals, meat and other foodstuffs. Also found were mollusc shells the bones of fish, wild fauna (deer, hares, foxes, birds) and domesticated animals (sheep, goats, cattle, pigs) ceramic bowls and spindle whorls for weaving.

Altogether, it seems the earliest Rhodians were farmers, fishermen, hunters and craftsmen who migrated around the island depending on the season and availability of food resources.

The Rise of Cities

From earliest times, people settled mostly in northern Rhodes and along its eastern shores – a general pattern that continued throughout the island’s history. The first proto-urban settlement was Asomatos (2400/2300 BC-2050/1950 BC), a northwestern, Early Bronze Age coastal site, where small and large buildings, some with hearths and storage rooms, covered an area of only about 100 square meters.

During the Late Bronze Age, as Minoan and Mycenaean immigrants arrived, larger towns, referenced in Homer’s Iliad, arose at Ialysos (modern Trianda), Kamiros and Lindos, which went on to become the settings for the great Dorian-founded cities of Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Rhodes.

In 408 BC, the three principal communities joined forces to create a new city-state at Rhodes Town, which, some 2,500 years later, still remains the capital and nerve center of the island.

Marble head of Helios, the Sun God, the Rhodians’ main deity. A representative work of the Rhodian Baroque style, it is particularly noteworthy for its expressiveness (2nd c. BC, Archaeological Museum of Rhodes). Marble head of Helios, the Sun God, the Rhodians’ main deity. A representative work of the Rhodian Baroque style, it is particularly noteworthy for its expressiveness (2nd c. BC, Archaeological Museum of Rhodes). The Laocoön Group, a marvelous work of Rhodian sculpture (1st c. BC-1st c. AD), which greatly influenced Michelangelo and other Renaissance sculptors. Created by three Rhodian artists, Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus. The original stands in the Vatican (Pio Clementino Museum) a plaster cast is displayed in the Palace of the Grand Master in Rhodes.

The Laocoön Group, a marvelous work of Rhodian sculpture (1st c. BC-1st c. AD), which greatly influenced Michelangelo and other Renaissance sculptors. Created by three Rhodian artists, Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus. The original stands in the Vatican (Pio Clementino Museum) a plaster cast is displayed in the Palace of the Grand Master in Rhodes.

Far-Reaching Fame

Mythologically, Rhodes was said to have emerged from the sea as a gift from Zeus to Helios, god of the sun, whose wife, Rhodos, daughter of Poseidon, bore him seven sons. Three of Helios’ grandsons, Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos, were the eponymous heroes of the island’s main cities. Moreover, the Telchines, semi-divine inventors of smithing, kept a workshop on Rhodes, a place praised by Pindar and widely known for its supreme artistry, especially in the sculpting of bronzes – epitomized by the legendary Colossus of Rhodes.

Pliny attributed the famous marble statue “Laocoön and His Sons” to the Rhodian artists Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus. The Winged Victory (Nike) of Samothrace may also have been produced by this trio, or by Pythokritos of Lindos.

Rhodes was equally famed as a center of philosophy, rhetoric and literature. Prominent philosophers and rhetors who either originated from or frequented the island included Eudemos (Rhodes) Aeschines (Athens) Panaitos (Lindos) Posidonius, Apollonius Malakos and Molon (Asia Minor). Among the well-known students attending here were Julius Caesar and Cicero.

Today, the survival and usual arrangement of Aristotle’s works are largely credited to Andronicus of Rhodes (1st c. BC). Cleobuline of Lindos (ca. 550 BC) is remembered as a philosopher, poetess and writer of riddles Apollonius Rhodius penned the epic poem Argonautica and Posidonius, the Stoic-turned-Peripatetic philosopher and one of antiquity’s greatest thinkers, also researched, taught and wrote about physics, geography, history and many other subjects.

Rhodes Town

The walled medieval Old Town is truly an impressive sight. Visitors should allow plenty of time to explore its broad avenues and narrow, labyrinthine alleys. From an ancient archaeological perspective, there are few visible in-situ remains to take in, apart from the foundations of a temple of Aphrodite (3rd c. BC), just inside the Liberty Gate, and occasional remnants of the city’s Byzantine fortifications. In its heyday, Rhodes also possessed sanctuaries of Demeter, Artemis, Asclepius, Dionysus and other deities.

A star attraction is the Archaeological Museum. From the moment you enter the courtyard of this 15th c. building – constructed by the Knights of St. John as their Hospital – you’re in another world, passing beneath vaulted ceilings, climbing stone staircases and perusing a vast arrangement of artifacts presented in numerous chambers.

Here one can see the discoveries of Italian and Greek excavations at Ialysos, Kamiros, Lindos, Rhodes Town and smaller sites: pottery, jewelry, sculpture and figurines compete for your attention with grave steles and floor mosaics depicting lively mythological figures, such as Eros on a dolphin or Bellerophon riding Pegasus about to strike Chimera.

Ruins at the archaeological site of Kamiros, one of the three city-states founded by the Dorian settlers of Rhodes. The people of Kamiros lived and prospered through agricultural production.

© Clairy Moustafellou, Ministry of Culture and Sports/Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese

Ruins at the archaeological site of Kamiros, one of the three city-states founded by the Dorian settlers of Rhodes. The people of Kamiros lived and prospered through agricultural production.

© Clairy Moustafellou, Ministry of Culture and Sports/Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese

These latter exhibits are found in a cool, shady courtyard adorned with sculptural and architectural fragments, a tranquil fishpond and two gurgling water fountains. Adjoining this pleasant refuge are the excellent new Prehistoric Gallery, the informative Epigraphical Collection and a reconstructed 18th/19th c. Ottoman residence – all located within the former 15th c. Villaragut Mansion (now part of the museum).

Small displays of ancient artifacts and a superb series of colorful Roman mosaics – brought to Rhodes from Kos by the Italians – can also be seen in the restored Palace of the Grand Master.

West of the walled city, the ancient acropolis on Monte Smith – an enormous, mostly unexcavated archaeological preserve of some 12,000 sq.m. – is well worth a visit. There, in addition to panoramic views, one finds monuments of the 3rd and 2nd c. BC, including a restored stadium, formerly flanked by a gymnasium and library a reconstructed odeon and the Doric Temple of Apollo Pythios, partly re-erected by the Italians prior to 1943, but now encased in decaying scaffolding.

In two spots to the north are large column drums and entablature blocks marking the site of the Doric Temple of Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus, protectors of the city, and an intriguing subterranean complex of interconnecting rooms carved in the bedrock (the “Nymphaia”), where ancient Rhodians worshiped. In honor of Helios, after 408 BC their principle deity, the people of Rhodes also staged a festival every four years, the Halieia, which included athletic contests in the stadium. Excavations have revealed that the Hellenistic city developed on a gridded Hippodamean plan.

The ancient odeon on the hill of Monte Smith (2nd c. BC). It held about 800 people and is believed to have served as both a venue for musical events and as a place of exposition and teaching for the famous orators of Rhodes.

© VisualHellas.gr, Ministry of Culture and Sports/Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese

The ancient odeon on the hill of Monte Smith (2nd c. BC). It held about 800 people and is believed to have served as both a venue for musical events and as a place of exposition and teaching for the famous orators of Rhodes.

© VisualHellas.gr, Ministry of Culture and Sports/Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese


The complex of sites that composes ancient Ialysos, whose Late Bronze Age settlement was one of the most important centers in the Dodecanese, now lies largely obscured amid modern development. Rising above the coastal plain, however, stands Ialysos’ ancient acropolis on Mt Filerimos, the view from which is unsurpassed. A winding road ascends to its summit, occupied by a Doric-facaded fountain-house (4 th c. BC) an amphiprostyle Doric Temple of Athena (3rd/2nd c. BC) the ruins of an Early Christian church (5th/6th c. AD) and a Byzantine monastery chapel (10th/11th c.) a Byzantine fortress (11 th c.) the small medieval Chapel of Aghios Georgios Chostos and a reconstructed monastery of the Knights Hospitaller (14th c.), whose Gothic church has a distinctive bell tower.

Long a target of archaeological interest, Ialysos was first explored in 1868-1871 by Sir Alfred Biliotti, Britain’s vice-consul, who unearthed tombs on the hill of Moschou Vounara containing pottery and jewelrythe first known Mycenaean collection in the world, preceding even Heinrich Schliemann’s discoveries at Mycenae (1876). Subsequent early 20th-century investigations by Italian and, more recently, by Greek scholars (since 1978) have shown the Ialysos area was occupied from the Middle Bronze Age through at least Classical times.

Mt Filerimos served as a peak sanctuary, before its reoccupation in the Proto-Geometric era (from ca. 1050 BC), while settlements and cemeteries were established in its shadow. The large Late Bronze Age town, comparable to Akrotiri on Santorini, flourished ca. 1600 BC-ca. 1300 BC, serving first the Minoans, then the Mycenaeans as a major trade station and maritime gateway between the Aegean and the East. Adjacent Archaic-Classical Ialysos was home to the famous Olympic boxer Diagoras of Rhodes.


The extensive ruins of Kamiros, southwest of Ialysos, occupy a hillside overlooking the sea and the mountains of nearby Asia Minor. Although most of the remains in this grid-planned city date from Hellenistic-Roman times, with some Early Christian presence, finds of Late Bronze Age and Geometric date reveal the site was first occupied in the 14th c. BC, then resettled in the 9 th c. BC, as a hilltop shrine to Athena Kameiras.

The town thrived in the 7th-6 th c. BC, experienced a period of rebuilding after an earthquake in 226 BC, then gradually declined, abetted by another quake in 142 BC. Kamiros was known for its epic poet Peisander (ca. 648 BC), who first described Heracles wearing a lion’s skin, and as the first Rhodian city to mint its own coins (6th c. BC).

Excavations by Biliotti (1852-1864) and the Italians (from 1928) exposed three main districts: the agora, with a temple of Pythian Apollo (3rd c. BC), two sanctuaries and two public baths a rising residential zone of densely packed courtyard houses reminiscent of those in Delos, separated by narrow side streets and a broad central avenue and the triple-terraced acropolis, adorned with an unusually long (204m) Doric stoa (colonnaded, covered walkway or visitors’ hostel 3rd c. BC) and a Doric temple of Athena (3rd c. BC) installed on top of a previous Classical one. Beneath the stoa, an enormous Archaic-era reservoir was discovered that originally held 600 cubic meters of water, enough for several hundred households.

The Doric Temple of Athena, constructed ca. 300 BC on the highest point of the acropolis of Lindos, in place of an earlier temple.

© Perikles Merakos, Ministry of Culture and Sports/Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese

The Doric Temple of Athena, constructed ca. 300 BC on the highest point of the acropolis of Lindos, in place of an earlier temple.

© Perikles Merakos, Ministry of Culture and Sports/Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese


The acropolis of Lindos, perhaps the most picturesque place in Rhodes, juts up from the sea, flanked by two natural harbors. The surrounding region was inhabited from earliest times, although archaeological evidence on the acropolis itself has so far only attested to use beginning in the 9th c. BC. Local worship of Athena Lindia led to the promontory’s development into a formal sanctuary, with a 6th c. BC amphiprostyle Doric temple, later rebuilt ca. 300 BC.

A monumental entranceway (propylon), installed around the same time, followed by an elegant Doric stoa, also adorned the site, while a theater with twenty-six tiers of seats can be seen carved into the hill’s western slope. At the foot of the steep Hellenistic staircase accessing the citadel gate, a relief sculpted on the face of the vertical rock by the renowned Pythokritos (early 2nd c. BC) depicts an ancient triimiolia and recalls the Lindians’ former maritime might.

Roman remains on the acropolis include the Ionic Stoa of Psythiros (2 nd c. AD) and a Diocletian-era temple (late 3rd c. AD). Lindos’ military defenses date from at least the Hellenistic era, but were augmented first by the Byzantines and then by the Knights Hospitaller, who strengthened the castle on the rock with crenellated walls and four large towers (14th c.). Caves, elaborate family tombs and other sites around the acropolis were reused for numerous Early Christian and Byzantine churches.

Excavations at Lindos were initially conducted by Danish archaeologists (1902-1905), which the Italians continued prior to WWII, along with extensive restorations. Less ambitious but more accurate restorations have more recently been carried out by Greek cultural authorities (1985-2008).

Around the Coasts

Although many visitors choose to concentrate on Rhodes’ main historical sites, a tour around the island’s coast, taking in the enormous array of other significant scenic remains, is well worth consideration. Most evocative are the ruined castles, usually perched on precipitous crags, including those of Kritinia, Monolithos, Asklipio and Farakleos. The Rhodian countryside is diverse and impressive, with historic spots lying around every bend, often signposted with intriguing labels such as the “Old Silk Factory” east of Kattavia.

The southern end of the island is another world: open, relatively quiet and featuring one of the largest sand beaches imaginable, connecting Prasonisi Islet to the Rhodian mainland. Just beside it, the fortified settlement of Vroulia (7th-6th c. BC), made visitor-friendly with EU funding, lies near-forgotten, awaiting further governmental support before opening to the public. On the east coast, the mountaintop 16th c. monastery of Tsampika, with its panoramic view of the Rhodian sea, is also well worth the trip.

Historical events during 3000 BC - 1500 AD Timeline

The Bronze Age is the name of the time period in which stone tools started being replaced with tools made of bronze, a mixture of tin and copper. The discovery of bronze (while most likely happening by accident) was essentially what gave the birth to civilization. The existence of bronze allowed the building of larger and more effective tools, and the mechanisms required for irrigation control.

Egyptians Use Papyrus to Make Paper

Papyrus was used as early as 3000 BC by the Egyptians to make many things including baskets, sandals, mats, rope, tables, chairs, medicine, food, clothes, and perhaps most importantly, paper. The paper created by papyrus was used to write on, display information, record events, and many other things. The invention of paper was very important to civilization because it introduced a more efficient and easy way to do all of the things listed above.

The Invention of the Egyptian Calendar

The Egyptian Calendar is the basis for most used calendars to date. It was the first calendar to have 365 day long years. Contrary to most calendars today, the Egyptian Calendar had three 120 day long seasons with one five days long period.

First Babylonian Empire Arises

The city of Babylon had existed since 2300 BC, but it only began to start its own empire around 1792 BC with the establishment of the First Babylonian Empire, under the king Sumu-Abum, dissolving into the Persian Empire after it was taken over in 593 BC.

Greco-Persian War

The Greco-Persian war was a very important war in the history of the world, due to the fact that Greece won. The Persian Empire had conquered most of everyone else in the western world, and it was unlikely for Greece to win. If Greece had lost, we likely wouldn't have the democratic politics, art, literature, and science we have today, all of these things being seriously influenced by ancient Greece.

The Life of Jesus Christ

Whether you believe he was the Son of God or not, there is no denying that the life of Jesus has had a major impact on the world. The life and death of Jesus define the starting point for one of the world's most followed religions, Christianity. Many countries, including America, were all founded based on Christian values.

The Mongol Empire

Thirteenth century Mongolia was the stage for an empire that forever changed the history of the world. The Mongol Empire accomplished many amazing feats during its rein over all of Eurasia. This monstrous empire opened trade between Europe, Asia, and Africa, created new nations, and impacted history indirectly in many other ways.

The Black Death

The Bubonic Plague, known as the Black Death, was one of the worst pandemics in all of human history, taking out 30-60% of Europe's population in just two short years. The spread of the Bubonic Plague was mainly due to rats on board ships spreading around Europe and the Mediterranean, biting people and infecting them. While it is not certain, many scientists also claim that the Yersinia pestis bacterium that causes the plague could have been an airborne disease as well.

The Renissance

Swiftly following the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, also known as the Age of Discovery, was a period of time in Europe which prompted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature, and art. Starting in Italy and eventually spreading to all of Europe, the Renaissance remains a staple in human history for art, harboring the world's most renowned artists Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Sandro Botticelli, Donatello, just to name a few. Not only was art affected by the Renaissance, religion had a major change as well. Humanism prompted many to question the Catholic Church itself. As more and more people began to learn to read and write for themselves, many got the chance to read the Bible for the first time, as it was not allowed before the Renaissance. This birthed a new chapter of Christianity, Protestantism.

The Fall of Constantinople

In May of 1453 came the fall of one of the biggest and most influential empires in history. Following decades of wars and battles, the Byzantine Empire finally came to an end after the fall of its capital city, Constantinople. Being conquered by the Ottoman Turks, the fall of Constantinople marks the end of the European Middle Ages.


Camirus, or Cameirus Kamiros was the city of ancient Rhodes, Dodecanese, Greece. Its site is on the Northwest coast of the island, 3 km West of the modern village of Rhodes.

1. History. (История)
The ancient city was built on three levels. On top of the hill was the Acropolis with the temple complex of Athena Kameiras and the Stoa. Indoor reservoir with a capacity of 600 cubic meters of water - enough for 400 families - was constructed about the sixth century BC. Later, the Stoa was built over the reservoir. Colonnade composed of two rows of Doric columns with rooms for shops or hotels in the rear.
The main settlement was on the middle terrace, consisting of a grid of parallel streets and residential blocks. On the lower terrace are found a Doric temple, possibly to Apollo, a fountain house, with the Agora in front of it and the Peribolos of the altars, which contain dedications to various deities.
In prehistoric times the area was inhabited by Mycenaean Greeks. The city itself was founded by the Dorians. The Foundation of the temple was started at least back in the eighth century BC. Earthquake in 226 BC destroyed the city and temple. The earthquake of 142 ad destroyed the city a second time.
The Acropolis was excavated Alfred Biliotti and Auguste Salzmann between 1852 and 1864. Many of the finds from their excavations are now kept in the British Museum in London. In 1928 the Italian archaeological school began systematic excavations in the area together with restoration work which continued until the end of the Second world war.

  • to the genus Camirus Camirus conicus Germar, 1839 g Camirus consocius Uhler, 1876 i c g b Camirus moestus Stål, 1862 i c g Camirus porosus Germar
  • Camirus consocius is a species of shield - backed bug in the family Scutelleridae. It is found in North America. Camirus consocius Report Integrated
  • Peisander paɪˈsændər, ˈpaɪˌsændər Greek: Πείσανδρος of Camirus in Rhodes, Ancient Greek epic poet, supposed to have flourished about 640 BC. Peisander
  • ascribed to the Corybantes it bore the successive names of Cyrba, Pytna, Camirus and Hierapytna. From an inscription preserved among the Oxford marbles
  • Prodicus of Phocaea Eugammon of Cyrene Pisinous of Lindus Pisander of Camirus Cypria, ascribed to Homer or Stasinus of Cyprus or Hegesinus or Hegesias
  • Πείσανδρος, Peisandros can refer to several historical figures: Peisander of Camirus in Rhodes, Ancient Greek epic poet, supposed to have flourished about 640
  • Halicarnassus in Caria Lindus, on the island of Rhodes Ialysus on Rhodes and Camirus on Rhodes. The members of this hexapolis celebrated a festival, with games
  • player on crotala Pausanias affirms by way of the epic poet Pisander of Camirus that Heracles did not kill the birds of Lake Stymphalia, but that he drove
  • warfare which would eventually lead to the Balkan Wars. He excavated at Camirus 1858 1865 Ialysus 1868 1870 Satala 1874 and Cirisli Tepe 1883
  • succeeded to the power. The three sons of Cercaphus, Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus were founders and eponyms of the cities Lindos, Ialysos and Kameiros respectively
  • wall of his own house. For this offense the five cities - Lindus, Ialysus, Camirus Cos, and Cnidus - forbade the sixth city - Halicarnassus - to share in the use
  • 349 with either Rustics or Anchises He was probably from the city of Camirus on Rhodes test. 1. 1 2. 9 although the Suda test. 1. 2 3 reports
  • Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Ode 9, 185, referring to Pherecydes, Pisander of Camirus and other unspecified writers Baynes, T.S., ed. 1878 Antæus . Encyclopædia
  • Homer, Lindus, together with the two other Rhodian cities, Ialysus and Camirus are said to have taken part in the war against Troy. Their inhabitants
  • Cnidus, in Caria on the west coast of Asia Minor Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus all three on Rhodes. The Phrygian Pentapolis: Eucarpia, Hierapolis, Otrus
  • the death of Cercaphus, his three sons by Cydipe: Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus succeeded to the supreme power. During their lifetime there came a great
  • wall of his own house. For this offense the five cities - - Lindus, Ialysus, Camirus Cos, and Cnidus - - forbade the sixth city - - Halicarnassus - - to share in the
  • noting Lullies 1954 A marble statuette of the Zeus Stratios recovered at Camirus gives an approximation of the lost sculpture. Calling this model a Doidalses
  • separately soldered on. It also occurs on ornaments of the 7th century BC from Camirus in Rhodes. But these globules are large, compared with those found on Etruscan
  • Wars and carried to Rome in 72 BC. He taught Virgil Greek. Peisander of Camirus in Rhodes, epic poet who flourished about 640 BC. Phanocles elegiac poet
  • champion compare Athena Promachos. This epithet belonged to Apollo at Camirus Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.22.1 2. Pausanias, Description of Greece
  • together with Cos and the three Rhodian towns of Lindus, Ialysus, and Camirus formed a confederation usually called the Doric Hexapolis. The members
  • Horvath, 1921 Pachycorinae Amyot Audinet - Serville, 1843 Acantholomidea Camirus Diolcus Homaemus Orsilochides Pachycoris Sphyrocoris Stethaulax Symphylus
  • Halicarnassus. Rhodians - They lived in Rhodes Island. Camirians - They lived in Camirus Ialysians - They lived in Ialysos. Lindians - They lived in Lindus. Macedonians
  • wall of his own house. For this offense the five cities - Lindus, Ialysus, Camirus Cos, and Cnidus - forbade the sixth city - Halicarnassus - to share in the use
  • Astris Aeetes Unknown woman Aloeus, Lampetia Perses Unknown woman Camirus Rhode Phaethon Circe Unknown woman Ichnaea Prote Nereid Pasiphae
  • Kamarina kaˈmarina Camarina Κάμειρος Kameiros Κάμειρος Kameiros ˈkamiros Camirus Kameiros Καμπανία Kampania Καμπανία Kampania kabaˈnia Campania Καμπέρα

Mythological Gallery 020 2003 ar.com.

This pieces style is usually termed Camirus, after a site on the island of Rhodes where many examples have been found, but they were actually made in the. Pacifier Clip by CAMIRUS 4 Pack Premium Quality Soothie Wish. Even though the register notes no findspot, and K.F. Kinch, Vroulia, p. 192, confirms the lack of findspot information, Elinor Price in JHS 44, p. 195, cites Camirus. Ancients: CARIAN ISLANDS. Rhodes. Camirus. Ca. 500 460 BC. PEISANDER, of Camirus in Rhodes, Greek epic poet, supposed to have flourished about 640 B.C. He was the author of a Heracleia, in which he introduced a. Hemiptera: Heteroptera jstor. Baby Bandana Drool Bibs with Snaps For Boys & Girls Drooling and Teething, Unisex Set of 4 Absorbent Cotton Baby Gift Dribble Bibs By CAMIRUS. Under Camirus Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives. An early Greek poet, born at Camirus, in the island of Rhodes, and supposed to have flourished about B.C. 650, although some made him earlier than Hesiod,.

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Acantholomidea denticulata. Images not available. Camirus consocius. Images not available. Camirus moestus. Images not available. Camirus porosus. Images. What does camirus mean? D. Find the perfect camirus stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100 million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register, buy now!. Image of ARCHAEOLOGY. Ruins Of The City Of Camirus, Rhodes. Camirus Kibwiro Jr. SubscribeSubscribedUnsubscribe 0. Loading Working Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off.

Camirus Wiktionary.

The name Peisander or Pisander Ancient Greek: Πείσανδρος, Peisandros can refer to several historical figures: Peisander of Camirus in Rhodes, Ancient. Camirus porosus ITIS Standard Report Page. Camirus moestus Stal, 1862 Scutelleridae. HOST PLANT. Unknown. DISTRIBUTION MEXICO Camirus moestus coordinates. MATERIAL EXAMINED. La Fiesta De Camirus by Jorge Marin on artnet et.com. We may compare some of the gold ornaments from Camirus in Rhodes, which show an Ionian tendency, perhaps combined with Phoenician. P1197.pdf gethsemanic reapproving camirus Overpolitical. Coin of Camirus. 500–480 B.C. Bronze. 6.74 g, 4:00, 19.6 mm. Transfer from the Yale University Library, Numismatic Collection, 2001. 2001.87.17787. Culture.

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Right now you might be examining one among my own write up about CAMIRUS 4 Pack Kids Christmas Cotton Socks, Unisex Read more. Camirus Visually. Three grandsons of these offspring were the heroes of the three principal cities on the island: Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, which were named. Datça Turkey. British Museum Camirus Rhodes 660 620 BC. Camirus Rhodes 660 620 BC. Done. Rowen, Tallis Keeton and 4 more people faved this. Camirus Oxford Reference. Oinochoe in the Camirus, or Wild Goat Style. Description. English: An oinochoe​ was used for serving wine. This pieces style is usually termed Camirus, after.

User submitted name Peisander Behind the Name.

Elan Horizon Inc, Opulens Inc and other three businesses listed there. Susan M Kim was linked to the address via UCC Fillings. Camirus porosus i. Camirus or Kamiros Ancient Greek: Κάμιρος or Cameirus or Kameiros ​Κάμειρος was a city of ancient Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Its site is on the. CAMIRUS Baby Bandana Bibs 4 Pack Extra Absorbent Cotton Drool. Ruins Of The City Of Camirus, Rhodes Island, Greece. Greek Civilisation, 7th 8th Century BC. Full Credit: De Agostini A. Garozzo Granger, NYC - All Rights. Camirus in ancient sources @. Case, Singular. Nominative, Camīrus. Genitive Camīrī Dative Camīrō Accusative Camīrum Ablative Camīrō Vocative Camīre Locative Camīrī. Peisander Encyclopedia. The CAMIRUS Bibs shape is unique and morden. Pattern designer cute baby drool bibs protect keep your drooly teething baby dry from all.

Pachycorinae MABA.

28 Nov 2019 Rhodian Amphora decorated with a partridge. Fikellura style Camirus Rhodes ca.540BC BM. Greek Ceramics Ceramic History Tutorials for. 21 Best Baby Bath Sets For Boys Baby Best Stuff. Reference for: Camirus porosus. Publication s. Author s Editor s, Henry, Thomas J., and Richard C. Froeschner, eds. Publication Date: 1988. Article ​Chapter. Rhodian Jug with Animal Friezes 610 BC 590 BC. Eastern Greek. The Dorians built six cities, collectively known as Hexapolis1, which are Kos, Knidos2, Halicarnassus, Lindus, Ialysos, and Camirus. The capital of this union. How To Pronounce Pisander of Camirus Pro. Gregory Cull. Optoro Operations Manager Testing and Repair. Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Warehousing. Optoro. Camirus Group LLC. 66 connections.


Terms in this set 92. Chian chalice from Camirus c.570 530 BC. Chian chalice from Tocra c.570 530 BC. Ionian Samian Little master cup c.575 BC. Fikellura. Page:EB1911 Volume 12.djvu 500 source, the free online. How do you say Pisander of Camirus? Listen to the audio pronunciation of Pisander of Camirus on pronouncekiwi. Genus Camirus. PEISANDROS. Form: Lat. Pisander. A Greek epic poet of Camirus, in Rhodes, about 640 B.C. He wrote a Heraclea in two books, which is numbered among the​. Alabastron, East Greek, Archaic Greek, Ionia, Camirus The British. Kameiros it, カメイロス ja, Camirus la, Kameiros nb, Kameiros nl, Kamejros pl, Camiros pt, Камирос ru, Kameiros sh, Kameiros sv, 卡米羅斯 zh. Shield backed bug Camirus conicus Germar. Camirus in ancient sources @. This is part of the index of names on the attalus website. The names occur either in lists of events arranged by year,.

Rhodes, cults and myths Oxford Research Encyclopedia of.

Cercaphus had three sons, Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus, who founded the eponymous cities on the island. See Also: Helios, Rhode, Telchines. See Also:. Medila Camirus in the 1940 Census Ancestry®. Free 2 day shipping. Buy CAMIRUS Pacifier Clip Teething Soother Holder, 4 ​Pack at. Camirus bug pedia. It contains the inhabited cities of Lindos, Camirus, and Ialysus, now called Rhodos. It is distant from Alexandria in Egypt, according to Isidorus, 583 miles but,.

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Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Camirus - Discover Life mobile. Camirus - Discover Life mobile. Camirus conicus. Lindsey Seastone. shield backed bug. Camirus conicus. Lindsey Seastone. shield backed bug. Camirus conicus. Lindsey Seastone. CAMIRUS Baby Girls Socks. Camirus ridinglesson herdadedopessegueiro. Camirus ridinglesson ​herdadedopessegueiro. Timeline Photos Jul 22, 2016. View Full Size. Loading​. Plin. Nat. 5.36 Perseus Under Philologic. CAMIRUS. Brand CAMIRUS Minoxidil. Clippers. Perfumes. Boleto Bancario. Nikon Minoxidil Nikon Invicta. Top Products. Latest Bestseller Special. Показать скрытые результаты. 2003: Zeus. Found at Camirus. Late Hellenistic. Archaeological Museum, Rhodes.

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After whose Death, Three of the Sons, Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus reignd together in whose time a great Inundation laid Cyrbe waste and desolate. Camirus porosus Idaho Fish and Game. A gliding club members portal developed with JSF Primefaces, Java, Hibernate and Mysql camirus Gliding. Pacifier Clip 4 Pack Unisex Baby Soothie Pacifier Teething Ring s172421831. A duck weight of Camirus, probably early, gives 8480 the same passed on to Greece and Italy 17, averaging 8610 but in Italy it was divided, like all other units. CAMIRUS Jonnys Bazar. View p1197.pdf from MATH SL at Desert Academy. gethsemanic reapproving camirus. Overpolitical nontheatrical scherm dard hymnologist autotomised.

Camirus Revolvy.

The original story of Hercules twelve labors, Heracles, was an epic poem written by Pisander of Camirus. Because Pisander of Camirus original epic poem is. Heliadae Greek Mythology. Camirus. City on the western coast of Rhodes near the modern Kalavarda it was one of the three ancient Rhodian cities, together with Ialysus and Lindus this. Camirus Stock Photos & Camirus Stock Images Alamy. Camirus porosus. Share your observation. Camirus porosus. Species. Presence. Not In Idaho. Conservation Ranks. State Rank No State Rank. Global Rank. Page 201 BOOK V The Library of History Diodorus Siculus. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs of Canada and the Continental United States Thomas J. Henry, Richard C. Froeschner. 1988.

Lindos Greece Britannica.

FAAM Jorge MARIN La Fiesta de Camirus, 2005 Bronze on brown patina Signed AP 33 x 23 x 8 in. 85 x 59 x 20 cm. With COA issued by the artist. Shield backed bug, Camirus conicus Hemiptera: Scutelleridae. CARIAN ISLANDS. Rhodes. Camirus. Ca. 500 460 BC. AR hemiobol 8mm, 0.64 gm. NGC Choice VF 3 5 4 5. Fig Available at Thursday World & Ancient. GAP: Hestia Demonstration, Looking at Cos and. 164 Followers, 940 Following, 43 Posts See Instagram photos and videos from camirus kibwiro jr @camirus kibwiro jr. Oinochoe in the Camirus, or Wild Goat Style 48.2108 The. Camirus porosus is a species of insects with 0 observations.

Field Events

Today's field events include high jump, pole vault, long jump, triple jump, shot put, discus, javelin, and hammer. Vertical jump competitions include the high jump and pole vault. These events are scored by the height at which each athlete reaches without knocking down the pole/marker. Horizontal jump competitions include the long and triple jump. Both of these are measured by how far an athlete can jump forward, with the winner jumping the farthest into a sandpit from a runway. The triple jump has specific components of a hop, step, and jump. Throwing competitions include shot put, discus, javelin, and hammer. The winner of these events succeeds by throwing the object the farthest.

In some cases, these competitions held once by Greek and Roman warriors could be considered the birthplace of true sport. Track and field has grown to one of the most participated and popular sports around the world. Whether you are an avid all-year fan or just catch the highlights every four years watching the Olympics, track and field has been a part of history since ancient times and will continue to be for many years to come.